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Volume 4 ~ Issue 6 (June 2014)
An Overview of Friction Stir Welding (FSW): A New Perspective
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/04600104
Friction Stir Welding (FSW), being a novel process and facilitates welding various joints required for several industrial applications. It is an attractive technology for solid state material joining, contrary to conventional welding methods, having ability to produce welds with higher integrity and minimum induced distortion and residual stresses. In this paper, the operation of FSW, critical parameters, history, advantages, and limitations were discussed. Further different applications of the process are presented along with critical review of literature; finally recognized areas of research work on materials such as cubic boron nitride, mild steel on tool profiles, boundary etc., and conditions to achieve better quality welds.
Key words:Welding, joint, parameter, material, tool profile
Conceptual Design of a Commercial Spent Pot Liner Treatment Plant
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/04600507
All aluminium smelter plants discharges high volume extremely toxic electrolytic cell waste known as spent pot liner. Over the years scientists have improvised various methods for disposing these toxic wastes either by diluting with inert material or recovering its carbon value after decontaminating the toxic waste. Present paper outlines conceptual design of a commercial treatment plant which allows recovery of its carbon value. The design is based on long experience of the authors in decontaminating SPL and recovering its carbon value.
Effect of Hydro Distillation Process on Extraction Time and Oil Recovery at Various Moisture Contents From Mentha Leaves
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/046008012
The experiments were carried out to study the kinetics of mentha oil extraction from mentha leaves (Mentha arvensis L.) and the quality analysis was carried out for the oil extracted. The oil was extracted from mentha leaves at three different moisture contents of 74.30 per cent (fresh leaves), 42.30 per cent (shade dried) and 19.35 per cent (sun dried) using hydro distillation method. Various physicochemical tests were carried out on the oil extracted. The results revealed that the hydro distillation process took more time for oil extraction and oil recovery was less. Various physicochemical properties such as acid value, refractive index, specific gravity, saponification values and solubility in water did not show significant variations with respect to oil extracted by differently pretreated mentha leaves.
KEYWORDS : Hydro distillation, Mentha, Oil recovery
Experimental Investigation of a Household Refrigerator using Air-cooled and Water-cooled Condenser
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/046013017
The objective of this paper was to investigate experimentally the effect of water-cooled condenser in a household refrigerator. The experiment was done using HFC134a as the refrigerant and Polyol-ester oil (POE) oil as the lubricant. The performance of the household refrigerator with air-cooled and water-cooled condenser was compared for different load conditions. The results indicate that the refrigerator performance had improved when water-cooled condenser was used instead of air-cooled condenser on all load conditions. Water-cooled condenser reduced the energy consumption when compared with the air-cooled condenser between 8% and 11% for various load conditions. There was also an enhancement in coefficient of performance (COP) when water-cooled condenser was used instead of air-cooled condenser. The water-cooled heat exchanger was designed and the system was modified by retrofitting it, instead of the conventional air-cooled condenser by making a bypass line and thus the system can be utilized as a waste heat recovery unit. The hot water obtained can be utilised for household applications like cleaning, dish washing, laundry, bathing etc. Experimental result shows that about 200 litres of hot water at a temperature of about 58ºC over a day can be generated and thus the system signifies the economic importance from the energy saving point of view.
Keywords: - Household refrigerator, HFC134a, Air-cooled condenser, Water-cooled condenser
Ingredients of Amino – Acids in cheese Kaçkaval produced from Combened milk (2: 1 Cows &Sheep milk) in milk industry in Kosova
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/046018024
The role of milk in nature is to ensure food and immunological protection of the young mammals. Milk processing in Kaçkavall cheese takes very important place in productivity of dairy, in the same time takes very important role in domestic economy as well as nutritive for human kind. The task of this paper is to determine the influence of type of milk (cow and sheep, and a mixture of these two types of milk (ratio between the milks 2:1) on the properties of cheese kashkaval, then determine how to produce the milk used type of change affects the amino acids properties of cheese during ripening. This study is done to research the ingredients of amino acids of Kaçkaval cheese, (these type of cheese is classified to hard group of cheeses), daily fresh cheese (One day), 15 to 30 days maturing, produced from combened cows and sheep milk, from fresh milk. There were made 45th of analyses with aminoanaleiser to searching ingredients of amino acids.
Keywords: - Milk, Proteins, Amino-acids, Cheese, Kaçkavall.
Research on the Effect of Focus on Neutral Tone Words in Chinese: The Variation of Spectral Emphasis
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/046025030
In this study, the spectral emphasis and the effect of focus on it of neutral tone words in Chinese is analyzed. It is shown that, the spectral emphasis of the onset is always greater than that of the rhyme, and the effect of stress and focus on spectral emphasis is great, so spectral emphasis is a more reliable correlate of stress and focus in Chinese. The rhyme of the stressed syllable is the most prominent part of the neutral tone word, so the increase of spectral emphasis on it under focused condition is comparatively great.
Keywords: - Focus, spectral emphasis, onset, rhyme
Shoreline Pilling Foundation Design in Karst Formation, Port Sudan, Red Sea, Sudan
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/046031036
Coastal reef limestone almost covered the Sudan‟s coastal plain. The limestone in coral reefs shows the effect of chemical solution forming channels and caverns when submerged by Sea water. Site investigation in Dama Dama including drilling standard penetration test, geophysical survey, soils and water sampling, geotechnical properties of soils and geotechnical map had been done in this work. The overall objective of this study is to Pilling foundation designation on shoreline in karst formation for heavy constructions. Many tests have been done to confirm load predictions and account for design uncertainly includes safety factor, Settlement, Load test, Skin friction and Load Capacity. The best layer which pile should rest is coral reef limestone of weathering grade III. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to use pilling foundation in the intertidal zone and highly safety measures must be consider in building in lightly hazardous zones.
Keywords: - Dama Dama, Coastal reef, backshore and design
Higher Separation Axioms via Semi*-open sets
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/046037045
The purpose of this paper is to introduce new separation axioms semi*-regular, semi*-normal, s*-regular, s**-normal using semi*-open sets and investigate their properties. We also study the relationships among themselves and with known axioms regular, normal, semi-regular and semi-normal. Mathematics Subject Classification 2010: 54D10, 54D15
Keywords: -s**-normal, s*-regular, semi*-normal, semi*-regular.