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Volume 4 ~ Issue 12 (December 2014)
Design of Linear Array Transducer Using Ultrasound Simulation
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/04120107
This paper analyze the effect of number of elements of linear array and frequency influence the
image quality in a homogenous medium. Linear arrays are most common for conventional ultrasound imaging,
because of the advantages of electronic focusing and steering. Propagation of ultrasound in biological tissues is
of nonlinear in nature. But linear approximation in far-field is promising solution to model and simulate the
real time ultrasound wave propagation. The simulation of ultrasound imaging using linear acoustics has been
most widely used for understanding focusing, image formation and flow estimation, and it has become a
standard tool in ultrasound research. . In this paper the ultrasound field generated from linear array transducer
and propagation through biological tissues is modeled and simulated using FIELD II program.
KEY WORD: Ultrasonic, biological tissues, linear array transducer, medical imaging.
Communication Skill - a Tool for Rural Women's Empowerment
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/041208011
Background: India is rich in women-power resources. The rural female population is as big as 360 millions but only 31% of them are working population. The rural women, particularly poor, are not exposed themselves though they have talent because they have dearth of communicating skills. Today‟s world is a globalized and technologically progressed world. So the communication skills are today‟s need. Method and Materials: The present study was undertaken to assess the communication skills of rural adolescents young women of nine centers across the country: Dharwad, Hisar, Hydrabad, Ludhiana, Palampur, Panthnagar, Parbhani, Udaipur and Jorhat with a sample of 1,183 young women of age group 15-18+ years. Communication skill scale developed by AICRP(CD) Hyderabad centre was used to assess the communication pattern at home, neighborhood and with authority. The tool was translated to regional language and administered to the adolescents young women in the Balika Kendra / Anganwadi. Educational package was used for intervention which consists of exercises and games for providing inter personal communication to facilitate cooperation and collaboration, to build on ideas by accepting other‟s ideas, awareness and assessment of problem issues prevailing in the immediate surrounding, community issues and larger issues in the country. The content of the packages were presented as films, discussions, interactions, exercises. The results of intervention was assessed through skill index. The educational intervention was provided to rural young women for a period of 18 months with three post-testing with an interval of six months between two testings. Findings: Significant difference between two post-tests was observed which revealed that the intervention was effective in enhancing the communication skills of rural women. It was observed that majority (53.6%) were in low, followed by high (25%) and medium (21.2%) category of communication ability. Due to intervention, A least percentage (21.4%) were in low category and highest (43.4%) were in high category of communication skill. Imparting of communication skills through training to the adolescents women would help them to express their views and needs have better access to community resources, banks and be self-reliant.
KEY WORD: Communication skill, educational package, intervention.
COSA and CSA based 32 -bit unsigned multipler
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0412012016
In this paper, design of two different arraymultipliers are presented, one by using conditional sum (COSA) logic for addition of partial product terms and another by introducing Carry Save Adder (CSA) in partial product lines. The multipliers presented in this paper were all modeled using VHDL (Very High Speed Integration Hardware Description Language) for 32-bit unsigned data. The comparison is done on the basis of three performanceparameters i.e. Area, Speed and Power consumption. To design an efficient integrated circuit in terms of area, power and speed, has become a challenging task in modern VLSI design field. Previously in the literature, performance analysis was carried out between multiplier using Ripple carry adder (RCA) and by using CLA. In this work, same multiplier is designed by using CSA logic and compare it's performance with the multiplier designed by using CSLA logic. Multiplier with CSA gives better result in terms of speed (78.3% improvement), area (reduced by 4.2%) and power consumption (decreased by 1.4%).
KEY WORD: Multiplier, Carry Save Adder, Conditional Sum Adder, VHDL Simulation
Spectral studies of praseodymium doped heavy metal borate glass systems
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0412017024
Praseodymium doped HMO glasses are fabricated with the following compositions using conventional melt quenching technique. The compositions of the glass systems are 12 ZnO + 33 B2O3 + (50-x) PbO + (x+10) CaO + 4 Al2O3 + 1 Pr6O11 where (x = 0,10,20,30 and 40 mol %.). Certain physical properties of these systems have been evaluated and reported. Spectral data for all these systems were recorded for X-ray diffraction, Optical absorption and Fluorescence properties. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ ( λ = 2,4,6) were evaluated from the spectral data and in turn employed to evaluate the lasing parameters of Pr3+ HMO glass systems such as radiative transition probabilities (A), radiative life-times (τR), branching ratios (βR) absorption cross-sections (σa) and Stimulated emission cross-sections (σe). The experimental and calculated branching ratios (βR) for the lasing transitions 3P0 3H4, 3P0 3H6, and 3P0 3F2 are found to be in good agreement in the present work.
KEY WORD: FT-IR, HMO glasses, Optical absorption, Praseodymium, XRD.
Effects of electric field on histopathological study, electrical properties and enzymes function of liver of albino rats
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0412025037
The present work was undertaken in order to investigate the effects of electric field (EF) of strength 50Hz-3KV/m on the histopathology, dielectric properties and liver function tests in albino rats. Fifty male albino rats were equally divided into three groups namely A, B, and C. Animals of group A used as control group which didn't receive any treatment . Animals of group B was divided into two subgroups namely B1 and B2 which were discretely exposed to 50HZ, 3KV/m electric field for a period of 15 day (8 hours/day, 5day/week). Group B2 animals were left to survive and housed at normal environmental conditions similar to control group A for a period of 15 day post exposed. Animals of group C are divided into two subgroups namely C1 and C2 were discretely exposed to the electric field for a period of 30 day (8 hours/day, 5day/week). Group C2 animals were left to survive and housed at normal environmental conditions similar to control group A for a period of 15 day post exposed. At the end of this period, blood and tissues samples were collected from all groups for experimental investigations. The dielectric constant (έ), electrical conductivity (σ) was measured in frequency range 42Hz-5MHz to investigate any changes in liver structure through studding histopathological examination. Also, the liver function was studied through analysis of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvie transaminase (GPT) and total protein (TP) after exposure to electric field this biochemical parameters have been evaluated in the blood serum of rats. The obtained results show high significant changes in the value of έ and σ of liver tissues for all groups exposed to EF as compared with control group. The levels of GOT and GPT were increased up to four times their values during the period of exposure to EF. These variations were recovered during two week after stopping exposure but they did not return to its original control values before exposure. On microscopic level; liver histological observations in liver cells which revealed some alterations including hepatic tissue with two portal tracts showing mild florous expansion and a dilated central vein, also ghosts of hepatocytes denoting necrotic changes also shows hepatic tissue with dilated central veins engorged with blood and splitting out to adjacent hepatocytes.
KEY WORD: Electric field, histopathology, liver enzymes, dielectric constant, conductivity.
Synthesis and analysis of electrical properties of Lead free Ba3Sr2LaTi3V7O30 Ceramics
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0412038042
Materials of tungsten-bronze (TB) structure belong to an important family of dielectric materials which are well known for their applications in various electrical devices, such as transducers, actuators, capacitors, and ferroelectric random access memory. The TB structure consists of a framework of distorted BO6 octahedral sharing corners in such a way that three different types of interstices (A, B and C) are available for a wide variety of cations occupying in a general formula (A1)2(A2)4(C)4(B1)2(B2)8O30. Our present work deals with the studies of preparation and characterization of the physical properties of a novel single-phase polycrystalline lead-free vanadate having Tungsten Bronze Structure with compound formula Ba3Sr2LaTi3V7O30.The X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of single-phase compound with orthorhombic structure. The effect of temperature (32- 5000C) and frequency (102–106 Hz) on structural and electrical properties were studied using an impedance analyzer. Detailed studies of impedance parameters provide a better understanding of the electrical properties and type of relaxation processes in the material. The bulk resistance is observed to be decreased with rise in temperature showing a typical negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior.
KEY WORD: TB Structure; Solid-state reaction; X-ray diffraction
Etude De L'importance De La Mycorhization Dans La Synthèse Des Composés Phénoliques Chez Le Maïs En Condition De Stress Hydrique
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0412043049
An experiment on maize plants (Zea mays L.) was conducted under greenhouse to investigate the effect of inoculation with an indigenous population of mycorrhizal fungi on the tolerance of these plants to water stress one hand and the contents of these plants in total phenolics and condensed tannins on the other. It turns out that after a two-week period of water stress, the levels of total phenols and condensed tannins of shoot and root systems of mycorrhizal plants are higher than those of non-mycorrhizal plants .The increase in rates phenols and condensed tannins due to water stress was due to fungal root colonization endomycorhyziens. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility of the involvement of phenolic compounds in increasing tolerance to water stress observed in mycorrhizal maize plants
KEY WORD: mycorrhiza, water stress, corn, phenolic compounds.
Study on Reflection Dispensation Augmentation and Renovation
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Computerized picture preparing is a methods by which the important data in watched crude picture information can be uncovered. An online picture preparing pipeline was made under the aspiring instructive system Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004). The dynamic members in the VT-2004 can apply the essential handling techniques to the pictures got by their beginner telescopes and/or they can prepare a picture saw at any observatory required in the task. The handled result picture is shown promptly on the presentation. Over that all members can take after the separation Sun-Venus focuses calculation performed at the expert observatory in the continuous. There is a plausibility to present a picture from their own particular perception into the database. It will be utilized for the separation Earth-Sun calculation
KEY WORD: Educational project, WEB pipeline, image processing
Detection of Images Using Digital Deflection Dispensation
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxx
General picture distinguishing proof is key in numerous applications. Deformities recognizable proof in commercial ventures is generally manual and tedious. To decrease blunder in recognizing imperfections, picture distinguishing proof can be utilized as a part of commercial ventures. Additionally, India being an agro-based economy, ranchers encounter a ton of issue in identifying and keeping the ailments because of bugs in horticultural fields. So there is an essential in recognizing creepy crawlies in agrarian fields which ends up being viable and helpful for specialists. The pictures of the, creepy crawlies or leaves are utilized to recognize the bugs or illnesses influencing the takes off. The general picture acknowledgment technique utilized as a part of this study depends on Otsu's edge esteem.
KEY WORD: Image segmentation, Otsu's threshold value
A Review Paper on Tensile Properties of Natural Fiber Polymer Matrix Composites
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Environmental awareness today motivates the researchers, worldwide on the studies of natural fiber reinforced polymer composite and cost effective option to synthetic fiber reinforced composites. In the present work different natural fiber based polymer matrix composites are prepared by using natural fibers Coir, Saw Dust, Rice husk and their tensile properties are studied. Usual hand- lay-up technique has been adopted for manufacturing the composite. To have a good compatibility between the fiber and matrix, chemical modification of fibers has been carried out. The study confirms that the tensile strength of the composites are varies with the volume fraction of the fibers
A modern technique for depreciation of ripple current using power electronic devices in renewable energy sources
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
In this proposed technique in which reduction in ripple current can be achieved without auxiliary switches. Here We considered current ripple which has twice frequency component is generated in the dc portion when suitable PWM inverter is used for grid purpose since ripple current shortens life span of electrolytic capacitors, batteries and fuel calls. The circuit realizes dc active filter without auxiliary switches due to buffer capacitor is connected to center tap of isolation transformer. We observed that results are verified with Matlab /Simulink.
Embedded Technology for vehicle cabin safety Monitoring and Alerting System
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract: Motor vehicles are the prime source of transportation where vehicles with A/C play a major part. This paper designs an embedded system for a vehicle cabin, which senses the gases like carbon-monoxide and oxygen and displayed at each and every second. If the level of the CO increases than the normal level (30ppm) or the level of the oxygen decreases than the normal level (19%) then an alarm is generated automatically and also ventilation is provided immediately. A warning message is sent to the authorized user via GSM. The advantage of this system is proper detection and faster response time leading to faster diffusion of the situation, compared with the manual methods.
Keywords: Atmel microcontroller; Embedded System; Gas detecting sensors; GSM Modem; Vehicle Safety