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Volume 5 ~ Issue 4 (April 2015)
Gravimetric, mechanical and chemical characterization of different materials used in sewers systems: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE), aged in sulfuric acid at 60°C
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/05401010
The effect of aging on mechanical and structural behaviors of PVC, PP, and HDPE was investigated by acid solution at 60°C. The curves of gravimetric measurements for PVC and HDPE during testing time reveal that the water absorption follows the Fickian process, while the curve of water absorption for PP follows a non-Fickian behavior. While the degradation progresses, an increase in tensile strength, a great drop in elongation at break and a clear brittle failure mode for PVC, PP and HDPE specimens was observed. The increase in tensile properties is due to the increase in crystallinity and cross-linking density. The decrease of tensile properties is due to the scission of molecular chain. The changes in functional groups were monitored by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These results show that the principal functions of polymers are the aliphatic hydrocarbons. After aging, the change and appearance of new peaks signify an oxidation of hydrocarbon groups (CC, CH) due to the acid attack, effect of temperature and aging time. These results show that there is a good relationship between the diffusion of solvent as well as the increase of time exposure and temperature on the mechanical properties and function of polymers.
KEY WORD: FTIR, mechanical properties, polymer materials, sulfuric acid, water absorption.
Impact of International MOOCs on College English Teaching and Our Countermeasures: Challenge and Opportunity
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054011015
MOOCs are world-wide online courses with the purpose of open visit and massive participation, which is the newly-booming course model in the global educational field. The article firstly introduces the outline of MOOCs in terms of types, theoretical foundations, features in course models and contents, and then analyzes the impacts of MOOCs on Chinese college English teaching including the quality of college English teaching, the contents of college English course, and the assessment system of college English test. In the latter part of the article, the author puts forward effective countermeasures to respond to this new educational situation. They involve the establishment of Flipped English Class under the MOOCs environment, and the adjustment of college English contents and curriculum system to apply MOOCs teaching resources into our English teaching research and English class.
KEY WORD: Impact, MOOCs, College English teaching, Countermeasures, Challenge
Improvement of Weld Images using MATLAB –A Review
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054016022
In recent years, gamma rays are been used as an improvement method or a tool along with the combination of image processing technique. It has been giving out better result in the detection of any flaws, or hole in case of the weld metal images and they are being adapted and improved ever since. Image processing is the vast area that has its roots in various fields and some of the important areas, where they have been used are in x-ray image, gamma rays and biometrics (iris & fingerprint) using the template matching technique. The radiography test is done using gamma rays for the given input expecting to display the places that has been affected or the ones with flaws in case of a welded metal, using the met lab technique, such as fuzzy and edge detection methodologies along with the filtering process called a gabor filter which is expected to provide corresponding result which is known as a film that is to give better output. The fuzzy technique is the one that has the attention as of know by all the researches since is known exact result like true or false value it can instead provide a degree of results sounds in between range of values as into help with detection of flaws and noises like the salt and pepper (black and white) error that appears in the image (weld image) this type of error may reduce the quality of weld metal image with a usage of fuzzy method the degree of errors are stated. The edge detection is another technique in image processing that detects the outer surface of the weld image perfectly like the active contours and canny operators, along with its own method and pre-processing are smoothing while segmentation is used to state the different region of the image and how they are split and are helpful to define the region that are with defects. The Gabor filter that is used in edge detection is said filter how the defects of the weld image that is given.
KEY WORD: Radiographic images, Image processing, MATLAB
Challenges Management and Opportunities of Cloud DBA
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054023029
This paper discuss the challenges and opportunities of Cloud computing DBA, beginning with building the database in the cloud by comparing between available architectures and choose the suitable one for the cloud. also we compare between traditional relational database (RDBMS) and NoSQL Database and discuss the most important parameters which is important for cloud DBA. we discuss the limitations and opportunities of deploying data management issues on these emerging cloud computing platforms (e.g., Amazon Web Services). We speculate that large scale data analysis tasks, decision support systems, and application specific data marts are more likely to take advantage of cloud computing platforms than operational, transactional database systems. We thus conclude the need for a new database administration system designed especially for cloud computing environments.
KEY WORD: Cloud DBA, DBAMS, NOSQL, Shared-disk, Shared-nothing.
Effets de la Modernisation de Tannerie sur l'Impact de ses Activités sur la Qualité des Eaux : cas de la Tannerie de Maradi au Niger
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054030038
The modernization of the tannery of Maradi had intervened in 2009 with the introduction of the process of tanning in the chromium. We estimated the influence of this change of operating process through an evaluation of the impact characteristics evolution of the solid and liquid discharges of this tannery on water, soil ground and vegetation. It stands out that the modernization of the tannery activities had more or less significant effects on these environment elements. We noted a relative improvement of the quality of underground waters illustrated by the regression of the content in chloride and nitrates rates stabilization. While the content in chromium evolved in a significant way as well as the pH. However, all the four above parameters remain below WHO standards. By cons, this modernization has almost not influenced the impact on the quality of surface waters. The values of BOD and COD have continued to rise despite the installation of a treatment system. Thus this surface water, including the pond, proved to be a major public health risk for domestic and agricultural use and is also a source of air pollution.
KEY WORD: Effluents, tannery, impact, modernization, Maradi
Optimal Siting And Sizing Of Distributed Generation For Radial Distribution System Using Genetic Algorithm
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054039046
Distributed generation (DG) is an emerging concept in the electricity sector, which represents good alternatives for electricity supply instead of the traditional centralized power generation concept.This paper presents a multi-objective performance index –based size and site determination of distributed generations in distribution system with various load models. The Optimal size and site of distributed generation is evaluated with multi-objective optimized values.The Multi-objective index is converted into Single objective performance index with the help of significant weights. It can evaluated the optimal siting and sizing with Genetic Algorithm (GA) and resluts were tested with 37-bus radial distribution system
KEY WORD: Distributed Generation (DG), Genetic Algorithm (GA), load model, Multi-Objective Index
Area Efficient Reconfigurable Fast Filter Bank for Multi-Standard Wireless Receivers
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054047053
This brief presents a reconfigurable fast filter bank (RFFB) with less gate counts for wireless communication applications such as spectrum sensing and channelization. RFFB offers fine control over subband bandwidth without any reimplementation. This is accomplished with an improved modified frequency transformation-based variable digital filter (MFTVDF) at the first stage of the multistage implementation that offers unabridged control over the cutoff frequency on a wide frequency range thereby improving the cutoff frequency range which inturn results in fine control over subband bandwidth . RFFB offers less gate counts among other filter banks.
KEY WORD: Fast filter bank (FFB), Transition bandwidth (TBW), variable digital filter (VDF
Mangrove Woods Damage Based On Time of Water Absorption Rate of Woods
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054054057
Mangrove forest was a main ecosystem supporting lives in littoral and sea areas. A mangrove forest has various advantages, such as fish, shrimps, crabs, and woods for a number of household needs. Littoral people tend to use mangrove woods to construct boats. The woods used are taken from mangrove trees in their own surrounding since the mangrove woods are considered strong, hard, and durable. The woods damage in sea occurs because the woods structures are not good enough and the amount of the extractive substances contained inside the woods is small. So, the woods structures are easily attacked by sea borer animals, which cause woods damage. The present study of mangrove woods damage based on time of water absorption rate of woods was conducted in Tuada village, sub district of Jailolo, West Halmahera. The purpose of the study was to examine the rate of water absorption on each type of woods and the damage level on each wood. This study employed an experimental design. The experiment woods used in this study were Rhizophora apiculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Osbornia octodonta, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. The measurement was conducted by: (1) preparing several mangrove boards sizing length 250 cm, width 30 cm, and thickness 4 cm. The boards were immersed 1 m or 2 m depth for about 15 months. The distances between the sea side and the immersed boards were 30 m and 50 m. (2) the rate of water absorption of the immersed board was measured. The data obtained were analysed by using anova and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The findings of the study showed that the rate of water absorption on the X. moluccensis was 5,698/second, which was the fastest rate compared to the other wood types. The rate of water absorption on the R. apiculata and B. gymnorrhiza was about 16,523-24,418/second, which was considered as moderate rate, while the slowest rate was found in O. octodonta 90,668/second. The faster the water absorbed by the woods, the higher the woods damage, vice versa.
KEY WORD: woods damage, water absorption rate, mangrove
Technical reclamation for electricity generation
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054058059
It is a portable set that generate electrical power by passing through Generator that provides the transmission and storage of the electricity for the developed system. Shaft and gear box were used in this system and the system is kept working via. the initial motion provided by the permanent horse shoe magnet . There is no need for another transfer or any driving mechanism and this device works using its own mechanism and there is no need for any additional devices. In this way a continuous electricity power generation is possible. This device can work without connecting to a network so it is possible to use at its places where electricity does not exist. Moreover, when connected to small or big building like a mall, the need for a network may be avoided this system generates electrical power independent of a network only few common alignment are required.
Introduction of Pattern Recognition with various Approaches
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054060063
The objective of this paper is To Familiarize with the fundamental concepts of pattern recognition (PR) & discusses various approaches for same. This paper deals issues: definition of PR (Pattern recognition), PR as System, approaches for PR.
Keywords - About five key words in alphabetical order, separated by comma
Collect Formation Resources Commission Routing and Node Transfer Algorithms
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/05406470
Location commission routing is most node transfer method is improving routing commission and routing such as delay in protocol is different uses to modify the values of new routing principal the main idea in information and communication methods .Communication nodes is critical for IoT methods take to models to finding different models of overlay models is study for the deplovement of IoT The main technique is in paper three continual phases of evaluation. First phase deals with development of Stochastic Routing Algorithms framework that can be used with efficient resource allocation in overlay routing. Second phase extend a nontrivial routing algorithm and prove its properties. Final phase exhibit the actual benefit Stochastic Delay Computation our proposal in three sensible scenarios, namely BGP routing, TCP improvement, and VoIP application the model is evaluating to gain over different real models The first one is BGP routing is using every data reflecting the current BGP routing model in the Internet the Service Level Agreements (SLAs) to changes negotiate peers demands and the locations is take when SLAs is violated the propose a model is to address SLA violations number of standard models is punishment in service model Our simulation performance is demonstrated that our model is uses peers to peers SLA violators in favor of long used peering. Lastly, we take potential, emergent model in a selfish routing overlay
Keywords - Overlay network, TCP throughput, resource allocation. Internet of Things; Node Placemat
Reducing the Fiber Non-linearities by Mitigating the PAPR in Optical OFDM Systems
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054071077
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) plays a vital role in many wireless network applications. However, it has a huge drawback called as higher peak to average power ratio (PAPR), which in results increases the complexity of digital to analog converters (DAC) and analog to digital converters (ADC) and also degrades the efficiency of high power amplifiers (HPA). Here, we have implemented non-linearities reduction in optical- OFDM (O-OFDM) system by mitigating the PAPR. Simulation results have shown that the proposed algorithm has performed superior results over the conventional algorithms and original OFDM system.
Keywords -OFDM, PAPR, non-linear companding, smoothing function and optical- OFDM (O-OFDM)
Low-Complexity Design of FIR Filter Implementation
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054078083
This paper presents a programmable digital finite impulse response (FIR) filter for low-power applications. A 10-tap programmable FIR filter was implemented and fabricated in CMOS 0.25- m technology based on the proposed architectural and circuit-level techniques. The chip's core contains approximately 130 K transistors and occupies 9.93 mm2 areas. The architecture is based on a computation sharing multiplier (CSHM) which specifically add and shift operation. Efficient circuit-level techniques, namely a new carry-select adder using fast all one finding logic used to improve and 16 percent shorter delay than the original dual ripple-carry carry-select adder. And conditional capture flip-flop (CCFF), are also used to further improve power and performance.
Keywords -Dual transition skewed logic, programmable finite impulse response (FIR) filter.
Robust Encryption Algorithm for Zigbee Communication
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054084087
Zigbee Technology was developed for Wireless Personnel Area Networks (WPAN), aimed at control of military applications with high security. To provide the security in Zigbee networks cryptography technique is used. Cryptography performs encryption operation before transmitting the data. Zigbee networks use stream cipher encryption mechanism. Several new stream cipher cryptography techniques are proposed, but these stream cipher techniques have shown some drawbacks. In this paper a robust and fast stream cipher encryption technique has proposed for the Zigbee communication. The proposed work is less complex to design and robust to the Zigbee communication. The design of stream cipher algorithm is carried out using Verilog HDL and implemented using FPGA.
Keywords - Zigbee, Cryptography & Stream Cipher.
An Extraction of Overlay Text from Digital Videos
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/054088094
With the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the introduction of streamed digital audio and video on the Internet, the amount of multimedia information available to consumers continues to grow. As content becomes readily available, automatic indexing during archiving and searching large volumes of multimedia data will become difficult. An important and integral part of video that contains high-level semantic information is overlay text and scene text. Overlay text brings important semantic clues in video content analysis such as video information retrieval and summarization, since the content of the scene or the editor's intention can be well represented by using inserted text. Most of the previous approaches to extract overlay text from videos are based on low-level features. However, existing methods experience difficulties in handling texts with various contrasts or inserted in a complex background. The framework proposed in this is used to detect and extract the overlay text from the video scene. Based on the observation that there exist a transient color between the inserted text and its adjacent background, a transition map is generated first and Linked maps are generated to make connected components of candidate region. Then candidate regions are extracted by a reshaping method and the overlay text regions are determined based on the occurrence of overlay text in each candidate. The detected overlay text regions are localized accurately using the projection of overlay text pixels in the transition map and the text extraction is finally conducted. This method is robust to different character size, position, contrast, and color. It is also language independent. Overlay text region update between frames is also employed to reduce the processing time.
Keywords - Optical character recognition (OCR) overlay text, transition map, video information retrieval, and video summarization.