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Vol ||2|| Issue || 12 ||

1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24020
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Non-Darcian Convective Heat and Mass Transfer through a Porous Medium in a Vertical Channel through Radiation and Thermo-Diffusion Effect
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr.V.Nagaradhika
Pages No. :: 01-05
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/02120105
Full PDF ::

In this analysis we discuss the effect of radiation and thermo-diffusion on convective heat and mass transfer flow of viscous incompressible fluid through a porous medium in a vertical channel with Non-Darcian approach. The governing coupled non-linear equations are linear zed with perturbation technique and solved. Many results obtained were represented graphically to illustrate the influence of the radiation and soret parameter on velocity, temperature, concentration profiles, Nusselt number and Sherwood number.

Key words:Thermal diffusion, Radiation, Non-Darcy, Heat transfer, Mass transfer, Porous medium, Nusselt number, Soret parameter, Sherwood number.

[1] D.A. Nield, A. Bejan, Convection in Porous Media, second ed., Springer, New York, 1998.
[2] A. Bejan, K.R. Khair, Heat and mass transfer by natural convection in a porous medium, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 28 (1985) 909-918.
[3] P. Singh, Queeny, Free convection heat and mass transfer along a vertical surface in a porous medium, Acta Mech. 123 (1997) 69-73.
[4] F.C. Lai, C.Y. Choi, F.A. Kulacki, Coupled heat and mass transfer by natural convection from slender bodies of revolution in porous media, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer 17 (1990) 609-620.
[5] R.S. Telles, O.V. Trevisan, Dispersion in heat and mass transfer natural convection along vertical boundaries in porous media, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 36 (1993) 1357- 1365.
[6] O.V. Trevisan, A. Bejan, Natural convection with combined heat and mass transfer buoyancy effects in a porous medium, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 28 (1985) 1597-1611.
[7] O.V. Trevisan, A. Bejan, Mass and heat transfer by natural convection in a vertical slot filled with porous medium, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 29 (1986) 403-415.
[8] Raptis, Raidation and free convection flow through a porous medium , Int.Commun. Heat and Mass Transfer, 25 (1998) 289-295.
[9] Irfan Anjum Badruddin, Z.A.Zainal, P.A. Aswatha Narayana, K.N. Seetharamu, Heat transfer by radiation and natural convection through a vertical annulus embedded in porous medium, Int. Commun. Heat and Mass Transfer 33 (2006) 500-507.
[10] V.K. Garg, S.Jayaraj, Thermophoresis aerosol particles in laminar flow over inclined plates, Int. J. Heat and Mass transfer 31 (1988) 875-890.
[11] Ali J.Chamka, Ali F.Al-Mudhaf, Ioan Pop, Effects of heat generation or absorption on thermophoretic free convection boundary layer from a vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium, Int.Comm. Heat and Mass transfer 33 (2006) 1096-1102.
[12] A.Nakayamma, T.Kokudai, H.Koyamma, Non-Darcian boundary layer flow and forced convection heat transfer over a flat plate ihn a fluid saturated porous medium, ASME J.Heat transfer 112 (1990) 157-162.
[13] D.S.Riley and D.A.S. Rees, Non-darcy natural convection from arbitrary inclined heat surface in saturated porous media, Q.J.Mech.Appl.Math 38 (1985) 277-295.
2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24025
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Measurement & Control of Slip in A Continuously Variable Transmission
Country :: India
Authors :: S.K Diwedi || Ankita Jaiswal || Lav Srivastava || Puneet Singh || Israr Ahmad || Praveen Pathak
Pages No. :: 06-09
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/02120609
Full PDF ::
There's been proven that a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) has the same efficiency as a manual transmission. To capture the market the CVT has to be improve and be better than a manual transmission. Therefore the aim of research is to get a better robustness and improve of the efficiency. In the macro slip region the push belt will slip more than normally allowed. To create this more slip, the pulley clamping forces has to be decreased. This decrease in clamping forces, results in a decrease in the needed power for the clamping forces, which results in a better efficiency and an improving in fuel consumption.A model describing slip in a CVT is verified using measurements with a belt with increased play. It is found that small amounts of slip can be controlled in a stable way on the setup. Efficiency is found to be highest for 1 to 2% slip depending on the ratio. The model is in reasonable agreement with the measurements.

Keywords –CVT, Slip control,Set point of slip control
[1] Kobayashi, D., Y. Mabuchi and Yoshiaki Katoh(1998). A study on the torque capacity of a metal pushing v-belt for cvt's. SAE Technicalpapers.Drogen,M.and M.van der Laan (2004).
[2] Determination of variator robustness undermacro slip conditions for a push belt cvt. SAEworld congress 2004.
[3] Supervisor: dr. P.A. Veenhuizen Technische University Eindhoven Department Mechanical EngineeringDynamics and Control Technology Group

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24084
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Strength Of Ternary Blended Cement Concrete Containing Cassava Waste Ash And Coconut Husk Ash
Country :: Nigeria.
Authors :: L. O. Ettu || J. I. Arimanwa || K. C. Nwachukwu || C. T. G. Awodiji || U. G. Eziefula
Pages No. :: 10-15
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0212010015
Full PDF ::

This work investigated the compressive strength of ternary blended cement concrete containing cassava waste ash (CWA) and coconut husk ash (CHA). 105 concrete cubes of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were produced with OPC-CWA binary blended cement, 105 with OPC-CHA binary blended cement, and 105 with OPC-CWA-CHA ternary blended cement, each at percentage OPC replacement with pozzolan of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. Three cubes for each percentage replacement of OPC with pozzolan and the control were tested for saturated surface dry bulk density and crushed to obtain their compressive strengths at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 50, and 90 days of curing. The 90-day strengths obtained from ternary blending of OPC with equal proportions of CWA and CHA were 26.20N/mm2 for 5% replacement, 25.00N/mm2 for 10% replacement, 24.10N/mm2 for 15% replacement, 22.40N/mm2 for 20% replacement, and 21.80N/mm2 for 25% replacement, while that of the control was 24.00N/mm2. The results show that very high concrete strength values could be obtained with OPC-CWA-CHA ternary blended cement when high control measures are applied and at longer days of hydration. Thus, OPC-CWA-CHA ternary blended cement concrete could be used in civil engineering and building works where early strength is not a major requirement.

Keywords:Binary blended cement, ternary blended cement, compressive strength, concrete, pozzolan, cassava waste ash, coconut husk ash.

[1] Adewuyi, A.P., & Ola, B. F. (2005). Application of waterworks sludge as partial replacementfor cement in concrete production. Science Focus Journal, 10(1): 123-130.
[2] Agbede, I. O., &Obam, S. O. (2008). Compressive Strength of Rice Husk Ash-CementSandcrete Blocks.Global Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 7 (1), pp. 43-46.
[3] Bakar, B. H. A., Putrajaya, R. C., &Abdulaziz, H. (2010).Malaysian Saw dust ash –Improving the Durability and Corrosion Resistance of Concrete: Pre-review. Concrete Research Letters, 1 (1): 6-13, March 2010.
[4] Cisse, I. K., &Laquerbe, M. (2000).Mechanical characterization of sandcretes with rice huskash additions: study applied to Senegal. Cement and Concrete Research, 30 (1): p.13– 18.
[5] Cordeiro, G. C., Filho, R. D. T., & Fairbairn, E. D. R. (2009). Use of ultrafine saw dust ashwith high-carbon content as pozzolan in high performance concrete. Materials and Structures, 42: 983–992. DOI 10.1617/s11527-008-9437-z.
[6] De Sensale, G. R. (2006). Strength development of concrete with rice-husk ash.Cement &Concrete Composites, 28: 158–160.
[7] Dwivedia, V. N., Singh, N. P., Das, S. S., & Singh, N. B. (2006). A new pozzolanic materialfor cement industry: Bamboo leaf ash. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 1 (3): 106-111.
[8] Elinwa, A. U., &Abdulkadir, S. (2011). Characterizing Sawdust-ash for Use as an Inhibitorfor Reinforcement Corrosion. New Clues in Sciences, 1: 1-10.
[9] Elinwa, A. U., &Awari, A. (2001).Groundnut husk ash concrete.Nigerian Journal ofEngineering Management, 2 (1), 8 - 15.
[10] Elinwa, A. U., Ejeh, S. P., &Akpabio, I. O. (2005). Using metakaolin to improve sawdust-ashconcrete. Concrete International, 27 (11), 49 - 52.
[11] Elinwa, A. U., Ejeh, S. P., &Mamuda, M. A. (2008). Assessing of the fresh concreteproperties of self-compacting concrete containing sawdust ash. Construction and Building Materials Journal, 22: 1178 - 1182.
[12] Fadzil, A. M., Azmi, M. J. M., Hisyam, A. B. B., &Azizi, M. A. K. (2008). EngineeringProperties of Ternary Blended Cement

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24104
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, Biological Screening and DNA Studies of 2-(5-Mercapto-1, 3, 4-Oxadiazol-2-yl) Phenol Transition Metal (II) Complexes
Country :: India
Authors :: P.Saravana Bhava || P.Tharmaraj || V.Muthuraj || M. Umadevi
Pages No. :: 16-25
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0212016025
Full PDF ::

A new series of transition metal (II) complexes of 2-(5-mercapto-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-yl) phenol of a ligand,(where [M = Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)] have been designed and synthesized by 2-hydroxybenzohydrazide in ethanol with carbandisulphide and KOH. All the synthesized complexes were characterized by analytical data, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV-Vis, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and EPR spectral techniques. Spectral and magnetic studies of the metal (II) complexes suggest an octahedral geometry around the metal ion. The electrolytic behavior and monomeric nature of the complexes were confirmed from their conductance data. The redox behaviour of the copper (II) complex has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was measured by Kurtz and Perry method. The ligand and their metal complexes were screened by Well diffusion method. The interaction of complexes with CT- DNA was investigated by viscosity measurement. Results suggest that all the complexes bind to DNA via an intercalative mode. The DNA cleavage ability of all the complexes was examined on calf thymus (CT-DNA) plasmids using gel electrophoresis experiment in presence of H2O2. From the results it is concluded that all the complexes cleave DNA.

Keywordsu :1,3,4- oxadiazole, octahedral geometry ,SHG , biological activity, DNA cleavage


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5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24099
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Improvement in Radiation Pattern Of Yagi-Uda Antenna
Country :: India
Authors :: Ankit Agnihotri || Akshay Prabhu ||Dheerendra Mishra
Pages No. :: 26-35
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0212026035
Full PDF ::
An Antenna is used to transmit and receive electromagnetic waves. Antennas are employed in systems such as radio and television broadcasting, point-to-point radio communication, wireless LAN, radar, and space exploration. Antennas usually work in air or outer space, but can also be operated under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances. The origin of the word antenna relative to wireless apparatus is attributed to Guglielmo Marconi. Several critical parameters affecting an antenna's performance are resonant frequency, impedance, gain, aperture or radiation pattern, polarization, efficiency and bandwidth. Transmit antennas may also have a maximum power rating, and receive antennas differ in their noise rejection properties. We have simulated the radiation pattern of Yagi-Uda antenna in MATLAB. We have designed this antenna and have made improvements in the previous designs to have better electric field intensity and directivity. Our basic approach was to simulate the radiation pattern for a symmetrically shaped antenna and then maximizing the output parameters by using various techniques such as using reflector surfaces wherever the loss in antenna was due to side lobes. Polarization of an antenna is a very important parameter in determining the loss in transmission. In antennas matching plays a very important role in determining the final output and raindrops due to reflection properties can lead to serious weakening of signal at high frequencies, due to which circular polarization is generally preferred.

Keywords :Electromagnetic Waves, Noise Rejection Properties, Reflector Surfaces, Circular Polarization.

[1] Antenna Theory , Analysis And Design By Constantine A. Balanis
[2] Antenna Engineering Handbook ( A.W. Love And T.S. Bird)
[3] R.E. Collin, "Antennas And Radio Wave Propagation"
[4] Robert S. Elliot, "Antenna Theory And Design"
[5] Antenna Theory And Design By Stutzman Thiele
[6] Modern Antenna Design By Thomas A. Milligan
[7] Antenna And EM Modeling With Matlab By Sergey N. Makarov
[8] Antenna Design And Visualization Using Matlab By Atef Z. Elsherbeni And Matthew J. Inman
[9] IEEE Antennas And Propagation Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 5, October 2004.
[10] Antennas And Propagation, IEEE Transactions On [Legacy, Pre - 1988] Volume 27, Issue 2, Mar 1979 Page(S):267 – 270

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24111
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Effect of Granite Powder on Strength Properties of Concrete
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr.T. Felix Kala
Pages No. :: 36-50
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0212036050
Full PDF ::

This paper focuses on the experimental study of using locally available granite powder as fine aggregate and partial replacement of cement with admixtures in the production of HPC with 28 days strength to the maximum of 60 MPa. The influence of water cement ratio and curing days on mechanical properties for the new concrete mixes were premeditated. The percentage of granite powder added by weight was 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% as a replacement of sand used in concrete and cement was replaced with 7.5 % silica fume, 10% fly ash, 10% slag and the dosage of superplasticiser added 1% by weight of cement. The test results show clearly that granite powder of marginal quantity, as partial sand replacement has beneficial effect on the above properties. The highest strength has been achieved in samples containing 25% granite powder together with admixtures. Based on the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that concrete mixture can be prepared with granite powder as an additive together with admixtures to improve the strength of concrete structure.

Keywords : concrete properties, fly ash, granite powder, HPC, silica fume, slag

[1] S. Khalifa Al-Jabri, Makoto Hisada, K. Salem Al-Oraimi and H. Abdullah Al-Saidy, Copper slag as sand replacement for high performance concrete, Cement &Concrete Composites, 31, 2009, 483-488.
[2] Md. Safiuddin, S.N. Raman and M.F.M. Zain, Utilization of quarry waste fine aggregate in concrete mixtures, Journal of Applied Science Research, 3 (3), 2007, 202-208.
[3] Kefeng Tan and Xincheng PU, Strengthening effects of finely ground fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag and their combination, Cement and Concrete Research, 28 (12), 1998, 1819 -1825.
[4] Adam Neville and Pierre-Claude Aitcin, High performance concrete – an overview, Materials and Structures, 31, 1998, 111 – 117.
[5] M.N. Haque and O. Kayali, Properties of high-strength concrete using a fine fly ash, Cement and Concrete Research, 28, 1998, 1445 – 1452.
[6] Mladenka Saric-Coric and Pierre-Claude Aitcin, Influence of curing conditions on shrinkage of blended cements containing various amounts of slag, ACI Materials Journal, 100, 2003, pp.477-481.
[7] V.S. Ramachandran and V. M. Malhotra, Superplasticisers in concrete admixtures handbook (Park Ridge, N.J.: Noyes Publications, 1984) 211 – 268.
[8] M.S. Shetty, Concrete Technology-Theory and Practice (S.Chand and Company Ltd, New Delhi, Reprint with corrections, 2007) 458 – 503.
[9] BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards), Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete, BIS: 516-1959 (c), New Delhi, India.

7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24092
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Challenges of Ict in Teaching Learning Process
Country :: India
Authors :: Shaik Fathima
Pages No. :: 51-54
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0212051054
Full PDF ::

This article stresses on how ICT helps in improving the quality of education stating that information and communication technology is an important instrument that can transfer the present isolated, teacher- centered and book-centered learning environment into a student –centered environment. ICT can change the traditional concept of learning process and the components of ICT should be integrated in the education program me in such a way that teaching should be enabled to face the new demands and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels in both formal and non-formal settings.ICT not only enhances the learning experience of student but also helps them develop the skill essential to participate effectively in the world of affairs. Knowledge of ICT and skills to use ICT has gained immense importance for today's teacher. The new learning environment developed by the ICT is called Interactive Learning Environment. ICT aims at transferring the old traditional paradigm of learning to the new paradigm of learning. Thus, we must accept the new paradigm and technology in teaching learning process. Educational institutions need to develop strategies, plan to improve teaching-learning process and ensure that all teachers are well prepared to use the new tools for learning. The emergence of the knowledge-based society is changing the global status of education .Now; it is the time to develop a new knowledge-based global society. In developing countries like India, there are many untrained teachers in this area. The new ICT would be able to reach these teachers and can provide quality education all around the globe.

Keywords :communication, ICT, interactive learning, pedagogy, technology.

[1] Aggrawal,J.C.(2003).Educational technology and Management. New Delhi: vinod Pustak Mandir.
[2] Banks Frank (1994) .Teaching Technology. London: Routledge.
[3] Bhaskara Rao (2004). Methods of Teaching Educational Technology. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.
[4] Biswas, P.C. (2002). Building ICT skills for Quality Teacher Education. University News, 40(50), 16-22.
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[6] Koehler Mathew,J., Mishra Punya (2005).What Happens When Teachers Design Educational Technology? The Development of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Journal of Education Computing Research, 32(2), 131-152.
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[8] Shukla , C.(2008). Essentials of educational technology and management. New Delhi: Dhanpatrai Publications
[9] UNESCO (2002). .Information and Communication Technologies in Teacher Education. A Planning Guide: UNESCO Publication.
[10] UNESCO (2008). ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. UNESCO.
[11] Venkataiah, N. (1995).Educational technology. New Delhi: Atul Publishers.

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24095
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: A Method for Mass Customization Implementation in Manufacturing Smes
Country :: Finland
Authors :: Mikko Mattila || Antti Huuskonen || Esa Hietikko
Pages No. :: 55-58
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0212055058
Full PDF ::

A mass customization framework fits well together with agile production. Even though the mass customization principle is relatively simple, implementation is not easy. The target of this research was to develop and test a method for implementing comprehensive mass customization framework in a manufacturing company. Radical changes in a company's operations are done at high risk. Especially small companies need to carefully think whether to change their way of operating. This paper describes a method that helps the company to understand what mass customization is and to give directions to implement a framework for it with relatively low resources.


[1] Eloranta, E., Ranta, J., Salmi, P., and Ylä-Anttila, P., Teollinen Suomi, (Edita, Helsinki, 2010)
[2] Cristopher M., The Agile Supply Chain: Competing in Volatile Markets, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol 29, No. 1, 2000, pp. 37-44
[3] Piller, F., Mass Customization: Reflections on the State of the Concept, the International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 16, 2004, pp. 313–334
[4] Åhlström, P. and Westbrook, R., Implications of mass customization for operations management - An exploratory survey, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 1999, Vol. 19 No. 3, pp. 262-275
[5] Pine J, Victor B, and Boynton A. Making Mass Customization Work, Harvard Business Review, September-October 1993, Vol. 71, No. 5, pp. 108-117
[6] Ahoniemi, L. et al., Massaräätälöinnillä kilpailukykyä, (Teknologiainfo Teknova, Helsinki, 2007)
[7] Yin R., Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Fourth Edition, (SAGE Publications, California, 2009).
[8] Dubois A. & Gadde L., Systematic combining: an abductive approach to case research, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 55, Iss. 7, 2000, pp. 553-660
[9] Ketokivi, M. & Castaner, X. Strategic planning as an integrative device, Administrative Science Quarterly, 2004, Vol. 49, 337–365.
[10] [10] Christopher, M. & Towill, D., An Integrated Model for the Design of Agile Supply Chains, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 2001, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp235-246.

9.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24097
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Load Based Reliable Routing In Multi-Sink Sensor Networks
Country :: India
Authors :: Samiran Gupta || Bappaditya Das
Pages No. :: 59-64
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0212059064
Full PDF ::

Wireless sensor networks, is always a challenging field with few foremost criteria like energy, distance, load etc .A wireless sensor networks can be described as a collection of spatially distributed autonomous sensors, which are widely used in many fields to gather sensitive information and then forwarded to an analysis centre. But still there are many problems in traditional single sink based sensor network. The main problem is the energy of the sensor's near the sink or on the critical path consumes too fast causing unbalance energy consumption. Due to heavy energy consumption the single sink based network causes the breakdown of the whole network. So, over here, we are implementing a new routing algorithm, reliability based path selection approach in multi sink sensor networks. We will also prove that the result of this algorithm is optimum than the traditional method to enhance the life time of Wireless sensor networks.

Keywords : Beacon Signal, Multi-Sink, Optimum Path, Routing Protocol, Wireless Sensor Network.

[1] Jianmin Zhang and Jian Li, Load-balanced Route Discovery for Wireless sensor networks, Journal of networks, 5(9), 2010.
[2] E. I. Oyman, Multiple Sink Location Problem and Energy Efficiency in Large Scale Wireless sensor networks, Bogazici
University, Ph.D. Thesis, 2004.
[3] [3]I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor networks," IEEE Communication
Magazine, Vol.40, No.8,2002, pp.102-114,2007.
[4] Jamal N. Al-Karaki Ahmed E. Kamal, Routing Techniques in Wireless sensor networks, A Survey Dept. of Electrical and
Computer Engineering Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 285-298, March 2005
[5] W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan and H. Balakrishnan, Energy Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor
Networks, Proc. 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2000
[6] C. hua and T.P Yum, optimal routing and data aggregation for maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks, .IEEE ACM
trans Netw vol 16. no 4 pp 892-903,. Aug 2008
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no 12 ,pp 3359-3367, Dec 2011
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[10] Yuan Xue, Yi Cui and Klara Nahrstedt, Maximizing Lifetime for Data Aggregation in Wireless sensor networks, Mobile
Networks and Applications, Volume 10, Issue 6, Pages 853 – 864, Dec 2005.

10.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24108
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Warehouse Creator: A Generic Enterprise Solution
Country :: India
Authors :: Majid Zaman || Muheet Ahmed Butt
Pages No. :: 65-68
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0212065068
Full PDF ::

With the advent of 21st century, enterprises developed warehousing solutions and the early solutions were such that multiple warehouses were created within a single enterprise. Though data warehousing has become a benchmark of data integration yet no generic tool cut across type,complexity,enterprise has been proposed as of yet.In this paper, we propose a tool which can create warehouse irrespective of type, complexity,enterprise work etc.Proposed tool creates dimension tables and fact table by evaluation the data present in various data sets (data sources). User/Administration intervention required is minimal; however access required for data sources is essential.

Keywords :OLAP, Data Warehouse, Enterprise, Data Sources

[1]. EMA Butt, SMK Quadri, EM Zaman, "Star Schema Implementation for Automation of Examination Records", WORLDCOMP, 2012 FEC3568, Las Vegas USA.
[2]. MA Butt, SMK Quadri, M Zaman," Data Warehouse Implementation of Examination Databases", International Journal of Computer Applications 44 (5), 18-23.
[3]. M Zaman, MA Butt, DSMK Quadri, "User Desired Information Translation" Journal of Global Research in Computer Science 3 (6), 51-53
[4]. Neill, P. (1998). "It's a Dirty Job: Cleaning Data in the Warehouse", Gartner Group, January 12, 1998
[5]. EMA Butt, SMK Quadri, EM Zaman, "Star Schema Implementation for Automation of Examination Records", WORLDCOMP, 2012 FEC3568, Las Vegas USA
[6]. Zaman, Majid, S. MK Quadri, and Muheet Ahmed Butt. "Generic Search Optimization for Heterogeneous Data Sources." International Journal of Computer Applications 44.5 (2012): 14-17.
[7]. EM Zaman, EMA Butt. "Information Integration: An Enterprise Solution" International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT) Volume 2, Issue 1, January 2013: 315-317