Current Issue

The current issue of the journal read...

Authors' guidelines

All you need to know in order to publish in our journal read...

Submission

Here you can submit your paper continue...

Contact

If anybody want to get in touch with us or submit article in Reseach Inventy please mail on :  Inventy.journal@gmail.com

For Authors                                               ISSN(e) : 2278-4721           ISSN(p):2319-6483

 
  • Call for Paper

    Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science is published by the group of young academic and industrial researchers with 12 Issues per

    Readmore
  • Submit an Article

    Submit your manuscript as an attachment file to  Inventy@editormails.com in MS Word (.doc format)



    Readmore
  • Payment Option

    If your paper is accepted for publication in Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science, you will get


    Readmore
  • Faqs

    Frequently Asked Questions






    Readmore
  • Contact Us

    If anybody want to get in touch with us or submit article in Reseach Inventy please mail on :  Inventy@editor
    mails.com

Vol ||1|| Issue || 1 ||

1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11023
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: The physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus hybrid E. camaldulensis x E. grandis: Comparison with its parental species
Country :: Morocco
Authors :: I.LOULIDI || A. FAMIRI||M. CHERGUI||M. ELGHORBA
Pages No. :: 01-07
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0110107
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Thanks to their plasticity and their capacity of rapid growth, the Eucalypti take an important part in the forestry economics. They thus have good mechanical qualities and can be used as building material. Considering the potentialities of the Eucalypti grandis and camaldulensis, highlighted by the plots located in different Moroccan arboretums, and the various observations including the level of technological quality, forest research led to study the genetic variability within the species by setting up opportunities for vegetative multiplication by hybridization and cloning.
The objective of this work being to study the physical and mechanical properties of three clones resulting from a cross between Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and to compare them with those of the parental species. The wood of this hybrid E. camaldulensis X E. grandis has a rather important density classifying it among the mid-heavy wood, with strong withdrawal and has interesting mechanical properties.

Keywords – Eucalyptus hybrid, Mechanical properties, Moisture, Sub-density, Withdrawal.
Reference
[1] Haut Commissariat des Eaux et Forêts et de la Lutte Contre la Désertification (HCEFLCD), Bilan du Ministère Chargé des Eaux et Forêts, Les eucalyptus au Maroc, 2005.
[2] A. FAMIRI, B. KABOUCHI, A. ELABID, M. FECHTAL, A. HAKAM, J. GRIL, N.WALIA ALLAH, Determination of some Eucalyptus grandis wood properties and study of piercing forest and/or steaming treatments effect, Forest Science Journal; Bulgaria; 2003.
[3] J. GRIL, Conferences book, Mécanique de l'arbre et du bois, Laboratoire de Mécanique et Génie Civil, CNRS/Université Montpellier 2.
[4] L. BRANCHERIAU, Expertise mécanique des sciages par analyses des vibrations dans le domaine acoustique, doctoral diss, 27 Septembre 2002 ; Université de la méditerranée – Aix Marseille II.
[5] ZOBEL B J., SPRAGUE J R., Juvenile wood in forest tree, Springer-verlag, Berlin, Allemagne, 1998, pp300.
[6] I. LOULIDI, M. CHERGUI, M. El GHORBA, A. FAMIRI, A. AKEF , Etude des Propriétés Physiques et Mécaniques des Arbres d'Eucalyptus Camaldulensis, 9ème congrès de mécanique, Marrakech, 21-24 Avril 2009.
[7] G. NEPVEU, Variabilité ; Le bois matériau d'ingénierie, Arbolor, Nancy, France, 1994, pp128-182.
[8] A. DAYA, Etude des contraintes de croissance des arbres sur pied d'eucalyptus grandis et du chêne vert caractérisation et valorisation sous forme de bois collé, doctoral diss., ENSEM de Casablanca ; 24 juin 2006.
[9] D. GUITARD, Mécanique des matériaux bois et composite, Capadues-Editions Collection Nabla, 1987, p238.
[10] F. MOTHE, R. Marchal, W. Tilmant Tatischeff, Sécheresse à coeur du Douglas et aptitude au déroulage : recherche de procédés alternatifs d'étuvage. I. Répartition de l'eau dans le bois vert et réhumidification sous autoclave, INRA, EDP Sciences Ann. For. SCI. 57, pp219–228, 2000,

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11035
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Study of Interval of Arc Modification Length of Cylindrical Roller Using ANSYS
Country :: China
Authors :: Xintao Xia||Shichao Zhu||Chenhui Jia||Rongjun Niu
Pages No. :: 08-13
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/01108013
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Taking a cylindrical roller bearing as a research object, the contact stress between the roller and the raceway is studied by means of ANSYS in order to obtain an optimum interval of the arc modification length. The results show that the given load corresponds to the suitable interval of the arc modification length to avoid edge stresses. However, when the loads exceed the normal range, edge stresses still exists. Therefore, the arc modification length of the roller should be chosen according to the actual work condition so as to realize the uniform distribution of the contact stresses between the roller and the raceway. This can increase the service life of the cylindrical roller bearing.

Keywords – cylindrical roller bearing, cylindrical roller, finite element analysis, arc-line modification generatrix.
Reference
[1] T. A. Harris, Rolling Bearing Analysis (Third Edition)( New York, US: John Wiley & Sons, 1991).
[2] L. Q. Wang, Z. H. Ye, and L. Gu, The effect of roller profile modification on roller bearing performance, Advanced Materials Research, 230-232, 2011, 1210-1215. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.230-232.1210
[3] H. Y. Sun, X. Y. Chen, C. H. Liu, and P. R. Yang, Study on thermal EHL performance of Lundberg profile rollers and the modification of its crowning value, Tribology, 28, 2008, 68-72. (in Chinese)
[4] H. Y. Sun, X. Y. Chen, and H. X. Zhang, Crowning design for the logarithmic profile roller according to a thermal elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory, Tribology, 30, 2010, 567-571. (in Chinese)
[5] N. Demirhan and B. Kanber, Stress and displacement distribution on cylindrical roller bearing rings using FEM, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines, 36, 2008, 86-102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15397730701842537
[6] T. Slack and F. Sadeghi, Explicit finite element modeling of subsurface initiated spalling in rolling contacts, Tribology International, 43, 2010, 1693-1702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2010.03.019
[7] Y. P. Chiu and M. J. Hartnett, A numerical solution for the contact problem involving bodies with cylindrical surface considering cylinder effect, Journal of Tribology-Transactions of the ASME, 109, 1987, 479-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3261478
[8] M. T. Hanson and L. M. Keer, Mechanics of edge effects on frictionless contacts, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 32, 1995, 391-405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-7683(94)00153-N
[9] M. C. S. Chandrasekara and R. A. Ramamohana, Mechanics and behaviour of hollow cylindrical members in rolling contact, Wear, 87, 1983, 287-296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0043-1648(83)90132-1

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11047
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Design and development of smart automatic windshield wiper system: fuzzy logic approach
Country :: India
Authors :: Mr. Anil G. Bansode||Prof.S.O.Rajankar||Dr.M.G.Ghatule
Pages No. :: 14-20
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/011014020
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Windshield wipers play a key role in assuring the driver's safety during precipitation. The traditional wiper systems, however, requires driver's constant attention in adjusting the wiper speed and the intermittent wiper interval because the amount of precipitation on the windshield constantly varies according to time and vehicle's speed. The manual adjustment of the wiper distracts driver's attention, which may be a direct cause of traffic accidents. The project is an endeavor towards an effective design and development of an automatic windshield wiper system, based on intensity of rain. The system comprises of PIC (Peripheral Interface Controller), grid sensor and a D.C. motor to actuate the windshield wiper. Next, the grid sensor is used to detect the rain intensity which is based on the simple principle that, as wetness increases sensor output voltage decreases, when the sensor is a part of voltage divider circuit. The proposed system has ability to change the wiper speed automatically with the change in rain intensity. But the system is not able to measure the rain intensity. Hence to tackle this problem the Matlab 7.0 fuzzy logic toolbox is used to predict the intensity of rain (High rain, Medium rain, Drizzle).
Keywords – Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy logic Matlab toolbox, Grid sensor, PIC 16F877, PWM.
Reference
[1] Shukla Abhishek, Dwivedi Rohan, 'Design and Implementation of Vision System Aid in Windscreen Assembly', International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 7– No.12, (2010), pp. 6-10.
[2] Jang J.S.R. and N .Gully, 'Fuzzy logic Toolbox for use with Matlab Natic', MA.' The Math works Inc 1995.
[3] Mehran Kamyar, Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Modeling for Process Control' Industrial Automation, Robotics and Artificial Intelligence (EEE8005) School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering Newcastle University 2008.
Book:
[4] Sivanandam S.N., Deepa S.N., Principles of Soft Computing, Wiley India Edition, New Delhi, 2010, pp. 314,445-450,392-398,468.
Proceedings Papers:
[5] Brown .M, Mills D.J, Harris C.J., 'The representation of fuzzy algorithms used in adaptive modeling and control schemes', University of Southampton, Southampton, So 17 1BJ,UK,Fuzzy sets and systems 79,(1999), pp.69-91.
[6] Cheok. Ka C., Kobayashi, Scaccia Sandro, Scaccia Giamberto, 'A fuzzy logic based smart automatic windshield wiper', School of Engineering and Computer Science,Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4401, IEEE Control Systems, (1996), pp28-34.
[7] Jian HU, Gangyan LI, Duanfeng CHU and Jun XU, 'Research on Passenger Car Windscreen Wiper Controller and Control Method Based on CAN'', Proceedings of the 2009, IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation Changchun, China, (2009), pp-4901-4906.
[8] Park Jee. Hun' Kim Man .Ho' Im Hong-Jun, Lee Kyung Chang and Lee Suk, 'Development of Vision based Control Smart Windshield Wiper System for Intelligent Vehicle', SICE-ICASE International Joint Conference 2006 in Bexco, Busan, Korea (2006) , pp. 4398-4403.
[9] PIC16F87X Data Sheet, 28/40-Pin 8-Bit CMOS FLASH Microcontrollers, Microchip Technology Inc. 2001.
[10] Surface vehicle recommended practice, 'Passenger Car Windshield Wiper system'
Society of Automotive Engineers Inc. (May 1999), pp.1-13.

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11017
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Analytical approach of availability and maintainability for structural lifting cables using reliability-based optimization
Country :: Morocco
Authors :: A. Chouairi||M. El Ghorba||A. Benali
Pages No. :: 21-30
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/011021030
Full PDF ::
Abstract
In industrial settings, the risks due to wire ropes failure are important and have much challenge for engineering and design, especially if costs are assessed in terms of human lives. Frequently the extent of damage and the carrying capacity of ropes are closely related to the sense of safety by staff and equipments, therefore the failure prediction has become so essential for optimal use of all industrial facilities.
The aim of this article is to introduce a practical method for reliability modeling wire ropes subjected simultaneously to tensile loads in order to ensure the exploitation of wire ropes under optimal conditions.
In order to optimize the relation reliability-maintainability and availability of metallic wire ropes, an extensive analytical modeling study has been performed in order to estimate the reliability-related to damage in the case of mixed systems, series-parallel or parallel-series configuration with symmetrical applied. The adopted approach is an approach multi-scale with a total decoupling between the scale of the wire and that of the cable.

Keywords – Wire ropes, damage, reliability-maintainability, availability, mixed systems.
Reference
[1] Kaczmarczyk S, Ostachowicz W. Transient vibration phenomena in deep mine hoisting cables. Part 1: Mathematical model. Journal of Sound and Vibration 2003; 262:219–44.
[2] Hoeppner DW, Chandrasekaran VW, Elliot CB. Fretting fatigue: current technology and practices ASTM STP 1367. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: ASTM; 2000.
[3] Ge SR, Qu RL, Xie WY. Reliability of hoisting ropes. In: Chen YH, Jiang ZF, editors. Reliability Technology of Mine Hoist. Xuzhou: China University of Mining and Technology Press; 1994.
[4] G. Simonnet, Tube, steel, technology and engineering. Metallic materials, 1996, Vol.MC2, N.M645, p. M645.1-M645.12.
[5] Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety "Wire rope lifting" in February 2010.
[6] Matteo J, Deodatis G, Billington DP. Safety analysis of suspension-bridge cables:Williamsburg bridge. ASCE J Struct Eng 1994;120(11):3197–211.
[7] Haight RQ, Billington DP, Khazem D. Cable safety factors for four suspension bridges. ASCE J Bridge Eng 1997;2(4):157–67.
[8] Camo S. Probabilistic strength estimates and reliability of damaged parallel wire cables. J Bridge Eng 2003;8(5):297–311.
[9] Crémona C. Probabilistic approach for cable residual strength assessment. Eng Struct 2003;25(3):377–84.
[10] Elachachi SM, Breysse D, Yotte S. Strength capacity of suspension cables. Final report, CDGA, University of Bordeaux I; 2004.

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11011
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Effectiveness of Image (dis)similarity Algorithms on Content-
Based Image Retrieval
Country :: South Africa
Authors :: Keneilwe Zuva||Tranos Zuva
Pages No. :: 31-35
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/011031035
Full PDF ::
Abstract
(Dis) similarity measure is a significant component of vector model. In content based image retrieval the
compatibility of (dis)similarity measure and representation technique is very important for effective and efficient
image retrieval. In order to find a suitable dis-similarity measure for a particular representation technique
experimental comparison is needed. This paper highlights some of the (dis)similarity algorithms available in
literature then compares Euclidean dissimilarity and cosine similarity on Kernel Density Feature Points
Estimator (KDFPE) image representation technique. The retrieval results show that cosine similarity had
slightly better retrieval rate than Euclidean dissimilarity.

Keywords – Image Representation, image retrieval, cosine similarity, Euclidean dissimilarity
Reference
[1] M. X. Ribeiro, et al., "Statistical Association Rules and Relevance Feedback: Power Allies to Improve the Retrieval of Medical Images," Proceedings of the 19th IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, 2006.
[2] D. Zhang and G. Lu, "Review of shape representation and description techniques," Pattern Recognition Society, vol. 37, pp. 1-19, 2004.
[3] Y. Li and L. Guan, "An effective shape descriptor for the retrieval of natural image collections," in. Proceedings of the IEEE CCECE/CCGEI, Ottawa, 2006, pp. 1960-1963.
[4] X. Zheng, et al., "Perceptual shape-based natural image representation and retrieval," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing, 2007, pp. 622-629.
[5] Y. Mingqiang, et al., "A survey of shape feature extraction techniques," in Pattern Recognition, 2008, pp. 43-90.
[6] D. C. Tran and K. Ono, "Content-based image retrieval: Object representation by the Density of feature Points," pp. 213-218, 2000.
[7] T. Zuva, et al., "Object Shape Representation by Kernel Density Feature Points Estimator," in First International Workshop on Signal and Image Processing (SIP), Bangalore, India, 2012, pp. 209-216.
[8] T. Skopal and B. Bustos, "On Nonmetric Similarity Search Problems in Complex Domains," ACM Journal Name, vol. V, pp. 1-56, January 2010.
[9] S. Antani, et al., "Evaluation of shape similarity measurement methods for spine X-ray images," J. Vis. Commun. Image R. (Elsevier), vol. 15, pp. 285-302, 2004.
[10] E. G. M. Petrakis and C. Faloutsos, "Similarity Searching in Medical Image

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11026
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Performance Indicator For Assessing The Implementation Level Of Mass Customization In Thailand's Textile And Apparel Industries
Country :: Thailand
Authors :: Kornthip Watcharapanyawong||Sompong Sirisoponsilp||Achara Chandrachai||Peraphon Sophatsathit
Pages No. :: 36-43
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/011036043
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Mass Customization has been perceived as a concept playing a crucial role in the delivery management of textile products according to fashion trends. At present, the production purposes, which aim at serving customers' needs, have completely changed due to the variety of demands, while the number of lot size orders is dramatically decreasing, causing a need to reduce delivery leadtime. Besides, there are also other demands, having changed. As opposite to the production systems in textile industries, the emphasis is still on Mass Production, which is considered as inflexible in terms of manufacturing process and technology management. This article, therefore, aims at proposing a tool that helps assess the implementation level of Mass Customization employed in textile industries, depending on three major factors: 1) Customer's need, 2) Manufacturer's readiness, and 3) Supplier's readiness. Each factor affecting the readiness of Mass Customization Implementation was obtained from exploratory research, using focus group and in-depth interview. The implementation of Mass Customization is divided into three levels, from levels one to three. The significance of this assessment can be used to consider how Mass Customization is effectively employed in particular textile industries.

Keywords – Customer's need, Manufacturer's readiness, Performance indicator, Supplier's readiness.
Reference
[1]. Giovani, D. S., Denis, B., and FlaHvio, S.F. Mass customization: Literature review and research
directions. Int. J. Production Economics 72 (2001) 1}13.www. Elsevier.com/locate/dsw. 2001.
[2]. Stan,D. Future Perfect, 10th anniversary edition, Addison-Wesley Pub Co, Harlow, England, 1996.
[3]. Pine, B. J. Mass Customization - The New Frontier in Business Competition, Harvard Business School
Press, Boston, Mass., 1993.
[4]. Chamberlin, E.H. The Theory of Monopolistic Competition, 8. ed., Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962.
[5]. Lancaster, K. A New Approach to Consumer Theory. Journal of Political Economy. 74 132-157.1966.
[6]. Beaton ,E. Give the people what they want. Profit. Toronto: Jun 2010. Vol. 29, Iss. 3; pg.11, 2 pgs. 2010.
[7]. Mikkola , J H . Management of Product Architecture Modularity for Mass Customization: Modeling and Theoretical Considerations. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. New York: Feb Vol. 54, 2007.
[8]. Zhou,C.,Lin,Z., and Liu, C. Customer-driven product configuration optimization for assemble-to-order
manufacturing enterprises. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology; Aug2008,
Vol. 38 Issue 1/2, p185-194, 10p, 5 Diagrams, 4 Charts, 1 Graph.2008.
[9]. Roderick, E. ON TIME, EVERY TIME. Manufacturing Engineer; Apr/May2003, Vol. 82 Issue 2, p20,
4p. 2003.

7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11015
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Detection of Fluoride Contamination in the Surface and Sub-Surface Water near Thermal Power Station
Country :: India
Authors :: Pathak R.P||Sharma Pankaj||Vyas Sameer||Mahure N.V||Kumar Rajeev||Murari Ratnam
Pages No. :: 44-47
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/011044047
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Exposure to higher amounts of fluoride can cause joint pain, restriction of mobility, and possibly increase the risk of some bone fractures. In the era of industrial advancement fluoride is mainly contributed through runoff and infiltration of chemical fertilizers in agricultural areas and liquid waste from industrial sources. Persistent use of fluoride contaminated coal in the Thermal Power plants can also heavily contribute fluoride in the surface and sub-surface water. A similar problem was reported from the neighboring areas of thermal power plant in north India where high concentration of fluoride is present in groundwater. Since there are no major studies in the recent past, the present study was carried out to understand the present status of surface and sub-surface water quality in this area. Water samples from 44 different locations around the power plant were collected in three cycles at an interval of six months and analyzed for fluoride concentration. The fluoride concentration in these samples ranged from 0.26 to 10.7 mg/l. About 14% of the samples were found in the desirable limit of 1 mg/l and suitable for human consumption. However, 39% of the samples were having less than the maximum limit of 1.5 mg/l but greater than 1 mg/l, and 47% of the samples possessed high concentration of fluoride, i.e., above 1.5 mg/l.

Keywords – Fluoride; ash recovery system; dewatering; ash dyke; de-fluoridation technique
Reference
[1] Brindha K, Rajesh R, Murugan R, Élan go L. (2011), Fluoride contamination in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Monit Assess, Jan;172(1-4):481-492. [2] Central Soil and Materials Research Station New Delhi, Report No. 4/E/CCD/02/07/44 - Study of fluoride induced problems in the vicinity of Thermal Power Plant. [3] IS 3025-1986 - Methods of Sampling and Tests (Physical and Chemical) for Water Used in Industry. [4] IS 10500- 1991- Drinking Water - Specification .

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11031
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Thermal Expansion in Ferromagnetic Fe-Ni INVAR Alloy
Country :: Iraq
Authors :: Jinan B. Al-Dabbagh||Ismail K. Al-Faluji||Yusof Bin Hashim
Pages No. :: 48-51
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/011048051
Full PDF ::
Abstract
The INVAR effect in 3D-transition metal Fe1-xNix alloys with x=0.35, 0.50,0.70 is studied. Experiments have been made on thermal and structural properties to study the physical origin of INVAR characteristics such as thermal expansion atomic ordering, phase transition and curie temperature (Tc) which are closely related to its ferromagnetism.
Fe0.65Ni0.35 shows an anomalously negative thermal expansion coefficient below the curie temperature 528K with Fcc structure. This behavior is not found in other combination. The specific heat results shows an anomalous temperature dependant where a strong decrease in curie temperature as well as the magnetic heat of transformation occur with decreasing Ni% content.

Keywords –Curie temperature INVAR, , Phase transition, Thermal expansion.
Reference
J. Wittenauer (Ed.), The Invar Effect: A Centennial Symposium,
[1] The Minerals, Metals and Material Society, 1977.
[2] T. Mizoguchi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 25 (1968) 904.
[3] P . Entel, E. Hoffman, P. Mohn, K. Schwarz, V.L. Moruzz Phys. Rev. B 47 (1993) 8706
[4] J . Crangle, G.C. Hallam, Proc. Phys. Soc. A 272 (1963).119
[5] G.Hausch and H. Warlimont, Acta. Met, 21(1973) 401.
[6] A Iwase a, Y. Hamatani Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 209 (2003) 323–328
[7] P .J. Brown I.K. Jassim, J. Physique, C8(1988) 307.
[8] O.Steinsvoll, R.M. Moon, W.K. Koehler and C.G. Windlsor, Phys. Rev., B24(1981) 4031.
[9] F. Ono, K. Hayashi, S. Wei, H. Maeta, Proceedings of Powder MetallurgyWorld Congress, vol. 1Granada,1998, pp. 449–454.
[10] F. Ono, M. Matsushita, S. Wei, R. Duraj, R. Zach, D.Fruchart, A.Iwase, H. Maeta, S. Endo, Proceedings of First Asian Conference on High Pressure Research, Dunhuang, China, 2002 (Electronic version).

9.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11029
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Analysis, Designing and Working Principal of Optical Fiber (OF) Biosensors
Country :: India
Authors :: Md. Sadique Shaikh||Madhuri. A. Patil
Pages No. :: 52-57
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/011052057
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Biosensors represent the end product of a rapidly growing field, which combines fundamental biological, chemical, and physical sciences with engineering and computer science to satisfy needs in a broad range of application areas. Therefore, the term 'biosensor' has different connotations depending on what field the user comes from .For the purpose of this review, we may define a biosensor as "an analytical device, which detects and converts the concentration of the target substance, the analyte (i.e. chemical or biological species or a microorganism, antibodies), into an electrical signal through a combination of a biological or biologically derived recognition system either integrated within or intimately associated with a suitable physiochemical transducer". Due to tremendous advantages, the field of optical biosensors has been emerged as a topic of great interest. Biosensors are very useful for biological intelligence system, medical and biological examination, biological monitoring/scanning/tracing and processing of biosignals through computer and electronics system, and bioelectronics data acquisition and signal processing and measurement through embedded electronics gadgets and instruments. Hence this paper intended to give fundamental idea about this emerging field, its types, application advantages and modeling review.

Keywords –optical biosensor, biomedical instrumentation, bio intelligence systems.
Reference
1) Modeling of Evanescent wave Optical Fiber Biosensor "An empirical study of optoelectronics biosensor
for future bioelectronics application" Author Md. Sadique Shaikh, LAP-Lambert Academic Publishing,
Germany.
Journals Papers:
2) Mathematical modeling of cladding layer radius for GaAs based Evanescent wave FOS, Md. Sadique Shaikh, IIT-Bombay,
Proceeding SEABB-2009
3) George P. Anderson et al, IEEE trans. of Bio-medical Engi. Vol 41, no 06, june1994
4) Optical fiber sensor, pro. IEEE, vol. 32, no 04, pp692-694(1003)
5) Molecular communication and signaling in biological system, Md. Sadique Shaikh, Proc. ICMS-08, B.A.R.C-Mumbai.
6) C.R. Pollock, Fundamentals of Optoelectronics, Irwin, Burr Ridge, IL, 1995.
7) J.A. Buck, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers, JohnWiley&Sons, Inc., 1995.
8) G. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York,
9) 1991.
10) S.K. Khijwania, B.D. Gupta, Fiber optic evanescent field absorption sensor: effect of fiber parameters and geometry of the probe, Opt. Quant. Electron. 31 (8) (1999) 625–636.

10.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11018
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Numerical evaluation of stress triaxiality at the top of notch for a specimen steel notched bi-S355
Country :: France
Authors :: Abdelilah Hachim||Mohamed El Ghorba||Said Hariri||Abdelilah Akef
Pages No. :: 58-64
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/011058064
Full PDF ::
Abstract
The crack initiation in a mechanical structure is most often due to the presence of a notch.
Harmfulness of notches generally depends on their size and their geometric parameters, such as radius and
notch angle. We focus in this paper on S355 steel.
The objective of our work is to establish a finite element numerical modeling of a tensile specimen with
double notches using the computer code CAST3M 2009. This method finds its importance in the study and
design of mechanical structures.
The results allow concluding the maximum stress which is located in σMax notch root. The numerical
study also reveals that the maximum stress decreases gradually along the axis of specimen, over the range 0 to
2 mm, and then stabilizes at face value that corresponds to nominal stress. The stress concentration factor
increases with the length of crack and the applied stress. That the local stress σx, parallel to the axis of the
notch, is not up to the root of the notch (she even zero), reaching its maximum value by cons to a distance of 1
mm of the notch.

Keywords – Notch, finite elements, maximum stress, stress concentration factor, nominal stress.
Reference
[1] A. Hachim, EL Ghorba M., A. Akef, M. Chergui, The evolution of the stress intensity, stress concentration and cracking under
cyclic loading for A36 steel and aluminum 6351 - T6, 9th Congress of Mechanics, Marrakech 21-24 April 2009– Morocco
[2] A. Hachim, H. Farid, EL Ghorba M., M. Chergui, A. Akef, S. Hariri, Prediction and evolution of the fatigue crack initiation by the
probabilistic method of A36 steel subjected to cyclic loading with constant amplitude (low cycle), VIèmes Days of Technical
Studies in 2010, from 05 to 07 May 2010, Marrakech – Morocco
[3] BC Pinheiro. Pasqualino IP. , Fatigue analysis of damaged steel pipelines Under cyclic internal pressure, Int J Fatigue 2009; 31:962-
73.
[4] A. Carpinteri, R. Brighenti, S. Vantadori, Notched double-curvature shells with cracks Under pulsating internal pressure, Int J
Pressure Vessels Pip 2009:1-11.
[5] A. Safih, Study of the harmfulness of crack in a cylinder with a thickness transition compared to a straight cylinder, Ph.D. Thesis
University of Science and Technology of Lille, July 1, 2003
[6] TH Topper, H. Haddad, Fatigue strength prediction of notches based on fracture Thresholds, 1st Int. Conf, Stockholm, Vol2,
EMAS, Warley, UK, pp. 777 to 797.1981
[7] A. El Hakimi, Numerical and experimental study of the harmfulness of defects in cylindrical and spherical shells under pressure,
Ph.D. Thesis University of Technology of Compiègne, June 30, 2006.
[8] A. Saffih, S. Hariri, Numerical study of elliptical cracks in cylindrers with a thickness transition, International Journal of Pressure
Vessels and Piping, Vol 83, No. 1, pp. 35-41, 2006.
[9] Rahman, Brust, Approximate methods for predicing J-integral of a circumferentially surfacecracked pipe subject to bending,
International Journal of Fracture, Vol 85, 1997, P: 111-130.
[10] EL Ghorba M., Evolution of the damage and crack propagation under cyclic loading of A36 steel and aluminum 6351-T6, Memory
Master and applied science, University of Montreal

11.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11002
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Event, Cause, and Quantum Memory Register-An Augmentation-Arrondissement Model
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr K N Prasanna Kumar||Prof B S Kiranagi||Prof C S Bagewadi
Pages No. :: 65-113
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0110650113
Full PDF ::
Abstract
We study a consolidated system of event; cause and n Qubit register which makes computation with n Qubits. Model extensively dilates upon systemic properties and analyses the systemic behaviour of the equations together with other concomitant properties. Inclusion of event and cause ,we feel enhances the "Quantum ness" of the system holistically and brings out a relevance in the Quantum Computation on par with the classical system, in so far as the analysis is concerned.*
Reference
1. Dr K N Prasanna Kumar, Prof B S Kiranagi, Prof C S Bagewadi - MEASUREMENT DISTURBS EXPLANATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICAL STATES-A HIDDEN VARIABLE THEORY - published at: "International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2012 Edition".
2. DR K N PRASANNA KUMAR, PROF B S KIRANAGI and PROF C S BAGEWADI -CLASSIC 2 FLAVOUR COLOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND ORDINARY NUCLEAR MATTER-A NEW PARADIGM STATEMENT - published at: "International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 5, May 2012 Edition".
3. A HAIMOVICI: "On the growth of a two species ecological system divided on age groups". Tensor, Vol (1982),Commemoration volume dedicated to Professor Akitsugu Kawaguchi on his 80th birthday
4. FRTJOF CAPRA: "The web of life" Flamingo, Harper Collins See "Dissipative structures" pages 172-188
5. HEYLIGHEN F. (2001): "The Science of Self-organization and Adaptivity", in L. D. Kiel, (ed) . Knowledge Management, Organizational Intelligence and Learning, and Complexity, in: The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems ((EOLSS), (Eolss Publishers, Oxford) [http://www.eolss.net
6. MATSUI, T, H. Masunaga, S. M. Kreidenweis, R. A. Pielke Sr., W.-K. Tao, M. Chin, and Y. J Kaufman (2006), "Satellite-based assessment of marine low cloud variability associated with aerosol, atmospheric stability, and the diurnal cycle", J. Geophys. Res., 111, D17204, doi:10.1029/2005JD006097
7. STEVENS, B, G. Feingold, W.R. Cotton and R.L. Walko, "Elements of the microphysical structure of numerically simulated nonprecipitating stratocumulus" J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 980-1006
8. FEINGOLD, G, Koren, I; Wang, HL; Xue, HW; Brewer, WA (2010), "Precipitation-generated oscillations in open cellular cloud fields" Nature, 466 (7308) 849-852, doi: 10.1038/nature09314, Published 12-Aug 2010
9. a b c Einstein, A. (1905), "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?", Annalen der Physik 18: 639 Bibcode 1905AnP...323..639E,DOI:10.1002/andp.19053231314. See also the English translation.
10. a b Paul Allen Tipler, Ralph A. Llewellyn (2003-01), Modern Physics, W. H. Freeman and Company, pp. 87–88, ISBN 0-7167-4345-0.