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Volume 2 ~ Issue 1



Volume 2 ~ Issue 1
1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 14058
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: A Survey of Heavy Metal (Lead, Cadmium and Copper) Contents of Selected Fruit and Vegetable Crops from Borno State of Nigeria
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: Amin O. Igwegbe||Chibugo H. Agukwe ||Charles A. Negbenebor
Pages No. :: 01-05
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021001005
Full PDF ::
The main objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium and copper) in some fruits (guava and tomato) and vegetables (onion, okra, sorrel, garden egg, potato, cucumber, carrot and spinach) commonly grown and consumed in Borno State. The fruits and vegetables were purchased directly from Monday Market Ltd in Maiduguri at their peak seasons. Each sample was subjected to two treatments (washed and unwashed), dry-ashed at 500 - 5500C for 12 – 18 hours to extract the heavy metals (analyte) and each analyte was subsequently quantified using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results indicate that the concentration of copper was negligible in all the crops; the highest concentrations of the metals were observed in spinach, these were 0.2250 ppm and 0.0325 ppm of lead and cadmium, respectively. The concentration of lead was higher (P<0.05) in the unwashed sample (0.1121 – 0.5010ppm) compared with 0.0132 – 0.2250ppm for the washed samples; that of cadmium were 0.0023 – 0721ppm and 0.0010 – 0.0325 ppm in the unwashed and washed samples, respectively. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the concentration of the metals between and within crop samples indicating the effects of crop types on metal concentration. The leafy vegetables had higher (P<0.05) concentrations of the metals than the fruits. The fact that considerable amounts of the metals were removed by washing suggests that the contamination was a surface type.

Key words:  heavy metals, AAS, fruits, vegetables..
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[7]. Haque, A. and Subramania, V. (1982). Copper, lead and zinc pollution of soil environment. Crit. Rev. Environ. Cont., 12(1):13 -70.
[8]. Igwegbe, A.O. (1990). Effects of Oil Refinery, Highway Traffic, and Treated Sewage Water on the Level of Lead and Cadmium in Fruits and Vegetables grown within these Locations, M.Sc. Thesis, Al-Fateh University, Tripoli, Libya.
[9]. Igwegbe, A.O; Belhaj, H.M, Hassan, T.M. and Gibali, A.S. (1992). Effects of highway's traffic on the level of lead and cadmium in fruits and vegetables grown along the roadsides. J. Food Safety, 13: 7 – 18.
[10]. J.A.O.A.C. (2000). Determination of metals in foods by atomic absorption spectrometry after dry-ashing. NKML Collaborative study. 83(5):1204 – 1211.

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15021
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Experimental Investigation of Compressed Ignition Engine Using Cotton Seed Oil Methyl Ester as Alternative Fuel
Country :: Hyderabad, India
Authors :: M.Harinathareddy||Dr P.Nageswara Reddy||Dr.K.Vijayakumar reddy
Pages No. :: 06-10
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021006010
Full PDF ::
this paper gives the brief out line about the worldwide production cottonseed & its oil, Cotton Seed Oil (CSO) properties, its comparison with diesel and Jatropha biodiesel. It investigates the performance of a diesel engine using diesel fuel and cottonseed oil (CSO) biodiesel in terms of brake thermal efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency for conventional diesel, cottonseed oil, as well as for Jatropha oil. For this aim, A Single Cylinder, 4-stroke vertical, water-cooled, self-governed diesel engine developing 5 HP at 1500 rpm (Rope brake dynamometer with spring balances and loading screw. Brake drum diameter = 0.400 m.) engine is selected for the testing with diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel, which is cottonseed oil methyl ester, at full load conditions. The evaluation of theoretical data showed that the brake thermal efficiency and indicated thermal efficiency of CSO biodiesel was slightly higher than that of diesel fuel and Jatropha oil. This study reveals that the use of cottonseed oil biodiesel improves the performance parameters of CI engine compared to conventional diesel fuel.

Keywords –  Alternative fuel, Biodiesel, cottonseed oil methyl ester, Engine Performance.
[1] Kapilan N. Nadar and Rana Pratap Reddy. Combustion And Emission Characteristics Of a Dual Fuel Engine Operated With Mahua Oil and Liquefied Petroleum Gas. Thermal science: Vol. 12 (2008), No. 1, pp. 115-123
[2] Kapilan N. Nadar, Rana Pratap Reddy and Eswara Rao Anjuri , comparison of performance of biodiesels of mahua oil and Gingili oil in dual fuel engine. Thermal science: Vol. 12 (2008), No. 1, pp. 151-156
[3] Lakshmi Narayana Rao Gattamaneni, Saravanan Subramani, Sampath santhanam, And Rajagopal Kuderucombustion And Emission Characteristics Of Diesel Engine Fuelled With Rice Bran Oil Methyl Ester And Its Diesel Blends. Thermal science: Vol. 12 (2008), No. 1, Pp. 139-150
[4] D. Ramesh and A. Sampathrajan. ―Investigations on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine With Jatropha Biodiesel and Its Blends‖. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript EE 07 013. Vol. X. March, 2008.
[5] B.K. Barnwal, M.P. Sharma, "Prospects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils India," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 9, 2005, 363-378.
[6] D. Agarwal, L. Kumar, A.K. Agarwal, "Performance Evaluation of a Vegetable oil fuelled CI Engine". Renewable Energy, accepted 29th June 2007.
[7] R. Sarin, M. Sharma, " Jatropha Palm biodiesel blends: An optimum mix for Asia", FUEL, Vol. 86, 2007, 1365-71.
[8] S. P. Chincholkar*, Saurabh Srivastava, A. Rehman, Savita Dixit and Atul Lanjewar, 22 Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Pollution Control in Diesel EngineAsian J. Exp. Sci., Vol. 19, No. 2, 2005, 13-
[9] T. Venkateswara Rao a,*, G. Prabhakar Rao a, and K. Hema Chandra Reddy b , Experimental Investigation of Pongamia, Jatropha and NeemMethyl Esters as Biodiesel on C.I. Engine Volume 2, Number 2, Jun. 2008ISSN 1995-6665Pages 117 – 122, Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
[10] F. Karaosmanoplu," Vegetable oil fuels: A review", Energy Sources, Vol. 70, 1999, 221-231.

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15031
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Correlated Emission Laser, Quenching Of Spontaneous Noise and Coupled Pendulum Analogy
Country :: Assam,India
Authors :: Chittaranjan Hazarika
Pages No. :: 11-15
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021011015
Full PDF ::
The laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. This is an unique beam of light which has properties of spatial coherence and temporal coherence simultaneously. The fundamental source of noise in a laser is spontaneous emission. This is also related to the so called laser linewidth which is attributed to the random phase diffusion process arising from the addition of spontaneously emitted photons with random phases to the laser field .In the present work we show that the quantum noise leading to the laser linewidth can be suppressed below the standard limit (Schalow-Townes limit) by preparing the atomic systems in a coherent superposition of states as in the Hanle -Effect and Quantum Beat experiments. In such coherently prepared atoms the spontaneously emission is said to be correlated. Lasers operating via such a phase coherent atomic ensemble are known as correlated spontaneous lasers (CEL). An interesting aspect of Correlated Emission Laser is that it is possible to eliminate the spontaneous quantum noise in the relative linewidths by correlating the two spontaneous emission noise events. A well defines coherence between the upper and lower levels leads to a correlation between the light emitted by an transition in a three level system. In this work we present a coupled pendulum analogy which illustrates CEL.

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4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15032
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Thermoluminescence of nanocrystalline Eu doped BaSO4
Country :: India
Authors :: RohitashSingh|| M. K. Dhasmana|| R.B.S. Rawat||
Pages No. :: 16-19
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021016019
Full PDF ::
Nanocrystalline powder of 0.1 mol% Eu doped BaSO4 were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation technique. The formation of the powder was confirmed by the Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) analysis. Shape and size of the synthesized powder were examined using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Dosimetric characteristics have been carried out of the γ-ray irradiated BaSO4:Eu phosphors using Thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The TL glow curve of the samples shows the dosimetric peak at around 456 K which is sufficient above the room temperature. Composite TL glow curve of the synthesized powder deconvoluted using general order kinetics equation and also calculated the kinetic parameters.


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[8]. P.D. Sahare, J.S. Bakare, S. D. Dhole, N. B. Ingale, A. A. Rupasov,Journal of Luminescence 130 (2010) 258-265.
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[10]. N.Salah, S. Habib, Z. Khan, S. Hamedi, S.P.Lochab, Journal of Luminescence 129 (2009) 192–196.
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5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15047
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: band HBT Low Noise Amplifier for active functions at microwaves
Country :: Istanbul
Authors :: Toumaj KOHANDEL GARGARI
Pages No. :: 20-24
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021020024
Full PDF ::
This paper discusses the use of differential structures for active functions at microwaves. Starting
from the example of a single-ended LNA structure, we show the advantages of using a differential approach
with the design examples of a LNA structure. The LNA was designed in the BiCMOS HBT process. ADS2010
was simulated to obtain the preliminary results.


[1] B. A. Kopp, M. Borkowski, and G. Jerinic, "Transmit/receive modules," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 827–834, Mar. 2002.
[2] J.D. Cressler, "A new contender for Si-based RF and microwave circuit applications", IEEE Trans. on MTT, Invited Paper, vol. 46, no.5, pp. 572-589, May 1998.
[3] D. Li, Y.Tsividis, "Active LC filters on silicon", IEE Proc.-Circuits Devices Syst., vol. 147, no. 1, February 2000.
[4] W.B. Khun, "Design of integrated, low power, radio receivers in BiCMOS technology", Dissertation presented to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1995.
[5] T.H Lee, "The Design of CMOS Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits", Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0 521 63922 0, Chapter 2.
[6] C.S Kim, M Park, C-H Kim, Y C Hyeon, H K Yu, K Lee, K S Nam, "A fully integrated 1.9GHz CMOS Low-noise amplifier" in IEE Microwave and guided wave letters, Vol 8, No 8 August 1998.
[7] T Soorapanth, T.H Lee, "RF Linearity of Short- Channel MOSFETs", IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 5, May 1997
[8] H. Bazzi, S. Bosse, L. Delage, B. Barelaud, L. Billonnet, B. Jarry, 'Using HBT BiCMOS Differential Structures at Microwavesin SiGe Technologies' I.R.C.O.M.- UMR CNRS n 6615 – 87060 LIMOGES

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15074
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Simulation of Distributed Power-Flow Controller (Dpfc)
Country :: India
Authors :: Sarimalla Pedakotaiah|| Santosh A
Pages No. :: 25-32
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021025032
Full PDF ::
This paper describes the steady-state response and control of power in transmission line equipped with FACTS devices. Detailed simulations are carried out on two-machine systems to illustrate the control features of these devices and their influence to increase power transfer capability and improve system reliability. The DPFC is derived from the unified power-flow controller (UPFC) and DPFC has the same control capability as the UPFC. The DPFC can be considered as a UPFC with an eliminated common dc link. The active power exchange between the shunt and series converters, which is through the common dc link in the UPFC, is now through the transmission lines at the third-harmonic frequency. The interaction between the DPFC, the network and the machines are analyzed.

Keywords – 
FACTS, DPFC, modelling, power transmission, AC-DC power conversion, semiconductor devices, power system control.

[1] Y.-H. Song and A. Johns, Flexible ac Transmission Systems (FACTS) (IEE Power and Energy Series), vol. 30. London, U.K.: Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1999.
[2] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. New York: IEEE Press, 2000.
[3] L.Gyugyi, C.D. Schauder, S. L.Williams, T. R. Rietman,D. R. Torgerson, And A. Edris, ―The unified power flow controller: A new approach to power transmission control,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1085– 1097, Apr. 1995.
[4] A.-A. Edris, ―Proposed terms and definitions for flexible ac transmission system (facts),‖ IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1848–1853, Oct. 1997.
[5] K. K. Sen, ―Sssc-static synchronous series compensator: Theory, modeling, and application,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 241–246, Jan. 1998.
[6] M. D. Deepak, E. B. William, S. S. Robert, K. Bill, W. G. Randal, T. B. Dale, R. I. Michael, and S. G. Ian, ―A distributed static series compensator system for realizing active power flow control on existing power lines,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 642–649, Jan. 2007.
[7] D. Divan and H. Johal, ―Distributed facts—A new concept for realizing grid power flow control,‖ in Proc. IEEE 36th Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC), 2005, pp. 8–14.
[8] Y. Zhihui, S.W. H. de Haan, and B. Ferreira, ―Utilizing distributed power flow controller (DPFC) for power oscillation damping,‖ in Proc. IEEE Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meet. (PES), 2009, pp. 1–5.
[9] Y. Zhihui, S. W. H. de Haan, and B. Ferreira, ―Dpfc control during shunt converter failure,‖ in Proc. IEEE Energy Convers. Congr. Expo. (ECCE) 2009, pp. 2727–2732.
[10] Y. Sozer and D. A. Torrey, ―Modeling and control of utility interactive inverters,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2475–2483, Nov. 2009.

7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15081
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Performance Evaluation of IEEE 802.11 with DSDV, DSR, AODV Routing Protocols in MANETs
Country :: India
Authors :: Sravya .V|| Nagaraju. A||Pavani. K
Pages No. :: 33-39
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021033039
Full PDF ::

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a network topology without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. One of the main procedures for evaluating the performance of MANETs is simulation. In this paper, the comparison is made for the performance of routing protocols i.e. Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV) over a MAC Layer protocol IEEE 802.11. As per our findings the differences in the protocol mechanics lead to significant performance differentials for these protocols. Always the network protocols were simulated as a function of mobility, but not as a function of network density. In our paper the performance of AODV, DSDV and DSR is evaluated with respect to performance metrics like Packet Delivery Fraction (PDF), Average end-to-end delay, Normalized Routing Load (NRL), and Dropped packets by varying network size. These simulations are carried out using the NS-2 which is the main network simulator.



[1] C.Sivaram Murthy, B.S.Manoj, Adhoc Wireless Networks:Architectures, And Protocols, Pearson Education, 2004.
[2] Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki And Eryk Dutkiewicz ," A Review Of Routing Protocol For Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", Elsevier 2003.
[3] C.Perkins ,Praving Bhagwat, "Highly Dynamic Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDV) For Mobile Computers".
[4] C.Perkins, "Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing" ,RFC 3561,July 2003
[5] D.Johnson, "The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR)", RFC4728, Feb 2007
[6] Yih-Chun Hu And David B.Johnson ",Caching Strategies In On-Demand Routing Protocols For Wireless Ad Hoc Networks",ACM 2000.
[7] NS -2, The Ns Manual, Available At Http: //Www. Isi.Edu/Nsnam/Ns/Doc.
[8] "Wireless Ad Hoc Networks" Zygmunt J. Haas, Jing Deng, Ben Liang, Panagiotis Papadimitratos, And S. Sajama Cornell University School Of Electrical And Computer Engineering.

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15082
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Cntfet Technology Based Precision Full-Wave Rectifier Using Ddcc
Country :: Delhi,India
Authors :: Gavendra Singh||Umesh Kumar||Rajeev Ranjan
Pages No. :: 40-47
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021040047
Full PDF ::

This paper is the HSPICE implementation of 32nm CNTFET technology based rectifier using DDCC (differential difference current conveyor). The circuit proposes low design complexity, high temperature stability, larger bandwidth of operation and higher packaging density. The circuit also offers high input impedance and lower output impedance. Simulation result shows the performance of the circuit design validity.

Key Words:   CMOS, CNTFET, DDCC, HSPICE, rectifier,


[1] M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, R. Saito ―PHYSICS OF CARBON NANOTUBE‖1995 Elsevier Science Ltd.
[2] J. Deng and H.-S. P. Wong, ―A compact SPICE model for carbon nanotube field effect transistors including non-idealities and its application—Part I: Model of the intrinsic channel region,‖ IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 3186–3194, Dec. 2007.
[3] J. Deng and H.-S. P. Wong, ―A compact SPICE model for carbon nanotubefield effect transistors including non-idealities and its application—Part II: Full device model and circuit performance benchmarking,‖ IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 3195–3205, Dec. 2007.

[4] Kumngern, M.; Saengthong, P.; Junnapiya, S. ―DDCC-based full-wave rectifier‖ 5th International Colloquium on Signal Processing & Its Applications, 2009. CSPA 2009.
[5] B. Gilbert, ―Translinear circuit: a proposed classification,‖ Electronics Letters, vol. 11, pp. 14-16, 1975.
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[8] Usa Torteanchai, Montree Kumngern, Kobchai Dejhan ―A CMOS Log-Antilog Current Multiplier/ Divider Circuit Using DDCC‖ TENCON 2011 - 2011 IEEE Region 10 Conference.
[9] S. J. G. Gift, "A high-performance full-wave rectifier circuit" International Journal of Electronics,vol.89,pp.467-476,2000.
[10] C.Toumazou, F. J. Lidgey,and S. Chattong, "High frequency current conveyor precision full-wave rectifier"ElectronicsLetters,vol.30,pp. 745-746,1994.
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9.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15092
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Variation of Impulsive Noise with Distance of the Noise Source from the Power Line in Power Line Communication
Country :: Kolkata, India
Authors :: Anirban Sengupta|| Chitrangada Roy
Pages No. :: 48-52
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021048052
Full PDF ::

This paper describes the variation of impulsive noise with the distance of the noise source from the power line in power line communication. Here a rectifier has been chosen as the periodic impulsive noise source and an induction motor has been taken as aperiodic impulsive noise source. The distance of the noise source from the power line has been varied and the variation of noise magnitude has been plotted, also the
variation has been modeled mathematically.

Key Words:  power line communication, noise.


[1] Yong-tao Ma, Kai-hua Liu, Zhi-jun Zhang, Jie-xiao Yu, Xiao-lin Gong, " Modeling the Colored Background Noise of Power Line Communication Channel Based on Artificial Neural Network."IEEE Trans on Consumer Electronics, 2007, 45(2): 345~348
[2] H. Phillipps, "Modeling of powerline communication channels",proc .3rd Int.symp.power line Communications and its applications, Lancaster, U.K., 1999,pp.14-21.
[3] M. Zimmermann and K. Dostert, "Analysis and modeling of impulsive noise in broad-band power-line communications," IEEE transactions on ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, Vol.44, pp.249-258, FEB 2002
[4] OPERA, " Theoretical Postulation of PLC Channel Model", version: 2 .

10.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15105
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Application of Artificial Neural Network to Analyze and Predict the Tensile Strength of Shielded Metal Arc Welded Joints under the Influence of External Magnetic Field
Country :: Lucknow, India
Authors :: R.P. Singh||R.C. Gupta ||S.C. Sarkar
Pages No. :: 53-57
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021053057
Full PDF ::

The present study is concerned with the effect of welding current, voltage, welding speed and external magnetic field on tensile strength of shielded metal arc welded mild steel joints. Mild steel plates of 6 mm thickness were used as the base material for preparing single pass butt welded joints. Speed of weld was provided by cross slide of a lathe, external magnetic field was obtained by bar magnets. Tensile strength of the joint fabricated by E-6013 electrodes as filler metals was evaluated and the results were reported. From this investigation, it was found that the joints fabricated have increased tensile strength if either speed of weld or external magnetic field was increased and this mechanical property decreased if either voltage or current was increased. An artificial neural network technique was used to predict the tensile strength of weld for the given welding parameters after training the network.

Key Words:   Shielded metal arc welding, tensile properties, back propagation, artificial neural network.


[1] A. K. Hussain, Influence Of Welding Speed On Tensile Strength Of Welded Joint In Tig Welding Process, International Journal Of Applied Engineering Research, Dindigul Volume 1, No 3, 2010.
[2] J. Hak Pak, Modeling Of Impact Toughness Of Weld Metals, Master Of Engineering Thesis, Pohang University Of Science And Technology, Pohang, Korea, 2007.
[3] R.S. Parmar, Welding Engineering And Technology, (Ed. 1st Delhi :Khanna Publishers, 1997).
[4] American Welding Society, Welding Hand Book, (Vol. 2, Welding Processes, Eighth Edition, 1991).
[5] D. G. Karalis, V. J. Papazoglou, And D. I. Pantelis, Mechanical Response Of Thin Smaw Arc Welded Structures: Experimental And Numerical Investigation, Theoretical And Applied Fracture Mechanics, 51 (2009), Pp. 87-94, Elsevier.
[6] V. Rao, C++ Neural Networks And Fuzzy Logic (First Indian Edition :Bpb Publications, 1996).
[7] R.P. Singh, R.C. Gupta And S. C. Sarkar, Prediction Of Weld Bead Geometry In Shielded Metal Arc Welding Under External Magnetic Field Using Artificial Neural Networks, International Journal Of Manufacturing Technology And Research, Vol.
[8] Number 1, Pp. 9-15, 2012. [8] M. I. Khan, Welding Science And Technology (Pvt. Limited Publishers : New Age International, 2007).
[9] R.P. Singh, R.C. Gupta And S. C. Sarkar, Application Of Artificial Neural Network To Analyze And Predict The Mechanical Properties Of Shielded Metal Arc Welded Joints Under The Influence Of External Magnetic Field, International Journal Of Engineering Research & Technology (Ijert), Pp. 1-12, Vol. 8, Issue 1, October, 2012.

11.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13072
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Optimizing the use of space and dimensions of the ideal house in housing Singgasana Pradana (SP) in Indonesia for well-established families
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Hartanto Budiyuwono|| Uras Siahaan|| Rumiati Rosaline Tobing
Pages No. :: 58-64
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021058064
Full PDF ::

A lot of new houses in the housing area, it built and sold to the public in the city of Bandung. Bandung is the capital of West Java province, the third-largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta and Surabaya based on its population. In the year 2007, British Council makes the town Bandung as a pilot project for the town of most creative in East Asia. Until the year 2012, many of the houses built by developers in the Bandung city. Some housing continues to expand the area of housing, one of them is housing SP. Survey conducted at housing SP owning wide of building 200 sqm. House building enthused by well established productive family. Its problem emerged when happened by a lot of change in dwelling space, only 32%, which can be accepted by a consumer. This research used the method qualitative, comparing between functional space criterion theory with the fact that happened at a study object. The findings are useful for the development of architectural design provided by the developer to the community and the environment.

Key Words: housing, economy, optimal.


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[2]. Rumiati. Rosaline Tobing, Tata Bentuk Rumah yang Seimbang dan Harmonis (Bandung: PT Cipta Sastra Salura, 2008).
[3]. Mildred. Deyo Roske, Housing in Transition (New York: California Polytechnic State University, 1982).
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12.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15102
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Fixed Point Theorems for Eight Mappings on Menger Space through Compatibility
Country :: India
Authors :: Ranjeeta Jain|| N. Bajaj
Pages No. :: 65-69
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021065069
Full PDF ::

In this paper we prove a common fixed point theorem for eight mappings on Menger spaces using the
notion of compatibility and continuity of maps.

Key Words:   Menger Space, Compatible Mappings, Weak-compatible Mappings, Common fixed point.


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