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Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)


Research Article  open access
Study of Parametric Kernels for LSSVM Models in NIR Determination of Fishmeal Protein
Jiangbei Wen || Yuanyuan Liang || Huazhou Chen
China
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxx
Abstract

High quality fishmeal provides suitable protein ratio in the modernizing balance of animal breeding. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technology was used for the determination of protein concentration in fishmeal samples. In this paper, Least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) method was applied to the NIR analytical procedure to search the optimal calibration model. We focus on the study of three common LSSVM kernels and the tuning of parameter valuing. The parameters of the linear, polynomial and Gaussian radial basis (GRB) kernels were respectively tuned to examine whether they output an optimal or acceptable predictive result, either in the validating or the testing part. These trainings were combined with the LSSVM regulation factor changing at a regular step pace. The results showed that, for polynomial kernel (including the linear kernel), the identified optimal parameters were able to outlet appreciating root mean square error, but the correlation seemed not so good as expected. For GRB kernel, we selected a relatively smaller regularization factor for each fixed kernel width to simplify the complexity in practical applications. In conclusion, the linear, polynomial and GRB kernels are feasible to explicit the NIR features of protein for the LSSVM model in NIR analysis of fishmeal samples.

KEY WORD: Gaussian radial basis, kernels, LSSVM, Near-infrared, polynomial


Research Article  open access
Molecular structure, vibrational, UV, NMR , molecular electrostatic surface potential and HOMO-LUMO Analysis of 1,4-dichloro-2-nitrobenzene
S.Seshadri || Rasheed .M.P
India
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxx
Abstract

The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of 1-4-Dichloro-2-NitroBenzene (14DC2NB) have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-50 cm-1 respectively. The optimized geometry ,frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of 1-4-Dichloro-2-NitroBenzene (14DC2NB) was obtained by the Density functional theory (DFT)using the basis set 6-31g(d,p). The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and scaled values have been compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The Calculated and Observed frequencies are found to be in good agreement. UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded, the electronic properties and HOMO - LUMO energies were calculated by Time Dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra were also reported based on Potential Energy Distribution (PED). The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of 14DC2NB were calculated using the GIAO approach by applying B3LYP method. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The Chemical reactivity and Thermodynamic properties of 14DC2NB at different temperatures were also calculated.

KEY WORD:FTIR; FT-Raman; UV-Vis; NMR; Hyperpolarizability; HOMO - LUMO; 14DC2NB


Research Article  open access
Experimental Investigation of Waste Heat Recovery System for Household Refrigerator
Sreejith K.|| T.R. Sreesastha Ram || Mossas V.J.|| Nidhin M.J.|| Nithil E.S.|| Sushmitha S.
INDIA
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxx
Abstract

Household refrigerator generally use air-cooled condenser. Most of the time the heat from the condenser side is dissipated to room air. If this heat is not utilised, it simply becomes waste heat. By retrofitting a waste heat recovery system this waste heat can be recovered and can be utilised for water heating purpose. The hot water thereby produced can be used for several residential and commercial usages. The hot water can also be stored in an insulated tank for later use. In our main project, we had designed, fabricated and experimentally analysed a waste heat recovery system for domestic refrigerator. We had analysed the system at various load conditions (No load, 40 W load and 100W load). We also carried out the techno-economic analysis by comparing the waste heat recovery system with the conventional geyser. From our obtained test results, we found that the waste heat recovery system performs well along with the household refrigerator. Hot water of moderate temperature can be obtained from it. This modification made the household refrigerator to be work as both refrigerator and water heater. Considerable amount of hot water at a significant temperature can be collected from the waste heat recovery system.

KEY WORD: Household refrigerator, waste heat recovery system, effectiveness, techno-economic analysis


Research Article  open access
Study of Compressive and Flexural Strength of Fibrous Triple Blended High Strength Concrete with Fly Ash and Condensed Silica Fume
P. RAMYA SREE || ARUNIKA CHANDRA|| B.L.P SWAMY|| M. BHASKAR
India
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

Change has been a constant parameter within the concrete industry in view of increasing construction activities and most importantly an increased thrust in high quality yet economic structures. This change has thus, brought along with it, different trends in concrete technology with respect to the way in which it is perceived and more technically, its composition, its handling, mixing etc. . As a result, we have today, different types of concretes such as triple blended concrete, self-compacted concrete, bacterial concrete etc. which have, in their own respective manner, succeeded in enhancing the serviceability of the structure with which they are built, in comparison to ordinary concrete. In this report, we focus and emphasize on Triple Blended Concrete, its meaning, materials involved, process of casting, testing, salient features et al.

KEY WORD: .....


Research Article  open access
Analysis of the Use of Universal Distribution Factors in SEC Power Grid
A. Alodhaiani || Y. Alturki || M. El-Kady
Saudi Arabia
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

Distribution factors have been extensively used in many power system analysis and planning studies. In recent power system studies, the AC distribution factors are insensitive to the operating point and relatively sensitive at certain degree to changes in network topology. These factors are linear approximations of sensitivities of variables with various inputs. This paper presents the calculation of the universal distribution factors (UDF's) applies them on several practical scenarios of Saudi Electricity Company (SEC) power grid. The results are analyzed and evaluated considering various system conditions of SEC load. The results show that the accuracy of the used approach is acceptable compared with exact method. This is practically beneficial to SEC in computing its grid complex power flows using UDF's at the base case without the need to recalculate UDF's which save efforts and time.

KEY WORD: Distribution Factors, Sensitivity Factors,Power System, Electricity Market.


Research Article  open access
Harmonic and Modal Finite Element Modeling of Piezo-Electric Micro Harvester
Fadi Al Faqs
Jordan
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

In recent years, vibration energy harvesters have drawn more attention in the world. Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging) is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.g. solar power, thermal energy, wind energy, salinity gradients, and kinetic energy), captured, and stored for small, wireless autonomous devices, like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks. Energy harvesting devices converting ambient energy into electrical energy have attracted much interest in both the military and commercial sectors. Some systems convert motion, such as that of ocean waves, into electricity to be used by oceanographic monitoring sensors for autonomous operation. In this paper, harmonic and modal modeling of piezoelectric micro harvester is investigated using finite element software (Ansys). The effect of Seismic mass on the voltage output of piezoelectric micro harvester will be monitored. The finite element model will be exposed to harmonic fluctuation on different masses to compare different cases

KEY WORD: Finite element, Harmonic, Micro harvester, Modal, Piezoelectric, Seismic mass


Research Article  open access
Skylon Space Plane
Jude Joseph Davy || Nithin Thimothy || Noble Joy|| Shijo Tom
Kerala
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

We are living in a vast universe that contains tremendous unknown knowledge. Human space exploration helps to address the fundamental questions about our place in the universe. In this the development of spacecrafts is remarkable. SKYLON is space plane that can be a replacement for the current scenario of space travel by its reliability, ease of operation and economic friendly nature. It's a single stage to orbit hypersonic space plane. That uses horizontal take off and landing like a conventional aircraft. It could reach up to the low earth orbit (LEO) with a payload of about 15 tons. This system use combined cycle engine commonly known as synergistic air breathing rocket engine (SABRE).That works both in air breathing and pure rocket mode. This permits the vehicle to cruise at hypersonic speed (around Mach 5.5) within earth atmosphere. SKYLON is the future of aviation and space industry, which may ease many missions from earth surface to space. Further modification in the engine may lead not only to the orbit but also far away from that .its low fuel consumption lower weight and reduced risk factor increases the performance and makes possible space tourism for people belongs to any community

KEY WORD: SKYLON, Space Craft, Mach Number , Hypersonic.


Research Article  open access
A Study of Educational Facilities Available In District Institute of Education and Training in Assam
Dr.Probin Kumar Gogoi || Sangeeta Khanikor
DU
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

The quality of education is a function of effective use of resources provided to the educational institutions. The study was conducted to see how far the DIETs have been able to provide the necessary facilities to the teacher trainees and faculty members of these institutions. The main objectives of the study were: (i) to collect information about availability of adequate educational facilities in DIETs. (ii) To study the problems faced by the teacher trainees in DIETs. 50 Primary schools teachers, 3 DIETs and 20 faculty members were selected. A questionnaire with minor changes was developed and used for the collection of data from the respondents. The questionnaire was primarily structured to keep the research within predefined boundaries. Data collected were analysed in light of objectives of study and it was found that availability of educational facilities in DIETs is satisfactory in respect of teacher training program.

KEY WORD: primary education, primary school teacher, DIET


Research Article  open access
Reliability Analysis of the Sectional Beams Due To Distribution of Shearing Stress
P.Hari Prasad || T.Sumathi Uma Maheswari
India
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

This paper shows the results of the Reliability Analysis of the sectional beams due to distribution of Shear Stress. It is assumed that the load was uniformly distributed over the beam. It is discussed that the distribution of shear stress over the beam. It is discussed that the average shears stress and maximum shear
stress across the section of the beam for Weibull distribution. The reliability analysis of distribution of shearing stresses over sectional beams is performed. Also it is derived that the hazard functions for these types of beams. Reliability comparison has also been done for the sectional beams. It is observed that the reliability of the beam decreased when the width (b) of the beam decreases, and the load (F) is high. The reliability of the beam is increased when the height (h) of the triangular section increases , diameter(d) of the circular beam is increased
and parameter 𝑘 decreasses

KEY WORD: Weibull distribution, Shearing Stress, Hazard rate, Reliability analysis, Maximum stress


Research Article  open access
Restaurant Revenue Prediction using Machine Learning
Prof. Nataasha Raul || Yash Shah || Mehul Devganiya
India
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

Currently, making a decision about when and where to open new restaurant outlets is subjective in nature based on personal judgement and development teams' experience. This subjective data is difficult to extrapolate across geographies and cultures. Our supervised learning algorithm will construct complex features using simple features such as opening date for a restaurant, city that the restaurant is in, type of the restaurant (Food Court, Inline, Drive Thru, Mobile), Demographic data (population in any given area, age and gender distribution, development scales), Real estate data (front facade of the location, car park availability), and points of interest including schools, banks. Applying concepts of machine learning such as support vector machines and random forest on these parameters, it will predict the annual revenue of a new restaurant which would help food chains to determine the feasibility of a new outlet.

KEY WORD: Machine Learning; Random Forest; SVM; Restaurant; Revenue; Prediction


Research Article  open access
Different Modes in Four Wheel Steered Multi-Utility Vehicles
Colin Varghese ||David Babu || Delwin Kuriyakose || Harikrishnan.A.S ||Irshad M|| Arun Raj A
India
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

Four wheel steering is the innovative technology in which research is going on. The front-to-rear wheel alignment plays a significant role in the directional stability of a vehicle in a good manner. Four wheel steering is the system that allows the rear wheels to turn for maneuvering, rather than just follow the front wheels. The system is employed by some vehicles to improve steering response, increase vehicle stability while maneuvering at high speed, or to decrease turning radius at low speed. In Four Wheel Steering System, the rear wheels do play an active role for steering, which can be guided at high as well as in low speeds. In this paper we made a four wheel steered vehicle for the analysis of four wheel steering systems (4WS). Apart from normal front wheel steered vehicle our designed model can work in all four modes of four wheel steering. The four modes include front wheel steering, 360 degree rotation of vehicle with in the position, parallel parking mode and shorter radius mode. 4WS is one of the devices which are used for the improvement of vehicle maneuverability and stability. Another significant finding is the effect of vehicle add-ons which showed how a multi utility vehicle can be made by giving a floor cleaning machine with it. We introduced Neodymium magnets to attract metal scraps, which helps us to clean the floor. It is expected that our different modes will be very beneficial to everyone who involved or interested in the automotive design, steering modes, analysis, performance assessment and applications of various types of four wheel steering systems.

KEY WORD: Four mode steering, four wheelers, Neodymium magnets, maneuverability.


Research Article  open access
On Convergence of Jungck Type Iteration for Certain Contractive Conditions
Rajeev Kumar
India
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

In this article we prove the strong convergence result for a pair of nonself mappings using Jungck S- iterative scheme in Convex metric spaces satisfying certain contractive condition. The results are the generalization of some existing results in the literature.

KEY WORD: Iterative schemes, contractive condition, Convex metric spaces


Research Article  open access
Experimental Analysis of YSZ Coating on an IC Engine Piston
Sharukh K || Majo T Varghese || Steven Anto || Sijin E.B || Visakh K.K and||Arun Raj A
India
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

As per the second law of thermodynamics the IC (Internal Combustion) engine efficiency depends upon the extraction of work against the heat supplied. Minimization of heat rejection leads to increase the work. Heat rejection takes place through the engine piston, valves and cylinder heads to the surroundings. The aim of the study is to minimize this heat rejection to the surroundings. Heat transfer through the engine parts can minimize by applying the thermal barrier coating materials on the top surface of the engine piston, cylinder heads and valves. In this study an attempt is made to reduce the intensity of heat rejection by using a layer of the ceramic material, like Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) which has low thermal conductivity, high thermal resistance, chemical inertness, high resistance to erosion, corrosion and high strength was selected as a coating material for engine component. In this paper the experiments were carried out with 0.4mm YSZ coated piston and it is found that it has 1% total fuel consumption, 1.2% specific fuel consumption and 0.7% exhaust gas temperature less than the conventional engine with uncoated piston. It is also seen that 2.6% brake thermal efficiency, 2.14% indicated thermal efficiency and 1.35% mechanical efficiency more than the conventional engine with uncoated piston.

KEY WORD: Brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, Mechanical efficiency, Total fuel consumption, Yttrium stabilized zirconia


Research Article  open access
Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of A356 Reinforced With Boron Carbide Composites
K.P.REDDY || K.KUMAR || LINGA RAJ
India
Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering & Science , Volume 6 ~ Issue 4 (April 2016)

Paper Index :: : 07.4721/xxxxxxxx
Abstract

The effect of natural ageing on microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 reinforced with boron carbide, after and before heat treatment were studied in this article. The experimental results of microstructures of the alloy showed primary dendrite-delta phase rich in A356, upon grain refinement it resulted in fine grain structure and grain modification produced fibrous in the silicon phase of the alloy. Boron carbide reinforcement has led to in its uniform distribution thereby improving the mechanical properties mainly ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength(YS), and ductility. Including the boron carbide reinforcement in the metal matrix displayed furthermore decreased in wear rate and thereby improving the wear resistance. The permanent mold, gravity cast AGRM (A356 reinforced with B4C) alloys obtained from stir casting were heat treated for varied heat treatment parameters such as solutionising, and natural ageing, which spurred further improvement in the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The precipitation increased the hardness of the alloy/composite proportional to the solutionising temperature and natural ageing was found to enhance thehardness. Therefore, effect of heat treatment variables viz, solutionising temperature, natural ageing on grain refined, grain modified and boron carbide reinforced A356 alloys/composites has resulted in a more wear resistant material with improved mechanical properties.

KEY WORD: Aluminium alloy A356, Boron carbide, Natural Ageing, Mechanical strength, Heat treatment




























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