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Volume 4 ~ Issue 8 (August 2014)
Alternative Electric Power Plant that Environmental Friendliness at Indonesia
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/04800107
Requirement of energy electrical increasing, is estimated by a growth will reach 7,1% each year till year 2012 with the electrification ratio 60%. Condition of like this at one side seethe with excitement, but other; dissimilar side will give the impact concerning from environment aspect, because 89,5% power plant in Indonesia use the energy fossil. Affect the use of energi fossil one of them is menghasilkan of gas emission throw away big enough, suppose each; every kWh energi electrical produced by energi fossil yield the polutan thrown into the air 974 gr CO2, 962 mg SO2 dan 700 mg Nox. At year 2012 is estimated by production of energy electrical in Indonesia reach 192,590 GWh, means 172,360 GWh electrical produced to use the energy fossil. Sum up this result happened by release 168 juta ton CO2, 159,6 thousand ton SO2 with 120,7 thousand ton Nox into the air. Starting from the impact, require to be done/conducted by a more study of comprihensive and comparability of concerning generating which is in using in Indonesia. This study is done/conducted by pursuant to evaluate from various information upon which reference, to later; then to yield the recommendation of concerning appropriate generating to be used in Indonesia. As for variable to be weared by as indicator evaluate is economic aspect, ecological and technical or is environmental. Than the variable, hence relevant generating for the context of Indonesia is power station of heating power of earth and power station nuclear energy.
KEY WORD: energy, ecology, economy
Novel Approach of Implementing Psychoacoustic model for MPEG-1 Audio
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048008011
Audio compression is the technology of converting audio signal into an efficiently encoded representation that can later be decoded to engender a close approximation of the pristine signal. In this work we are investigating implementation of psychoacoustics utilizing different wavelets to compress high quality audio signal and maintaining transparent quality at low bit rates Most psychoacoustic models for coding applications utilize a uniform spectral decomposition to approximate the frequency selectivity of the human auditory system; however the equal filter properties of the uniform sub bands do not match the non uniform characteristics of the cochlear filters. For implementing this algorithm a design of psycho-acoustic model was developed following the model utilized in the standard MPEG-1 audio. The architecture is predicated on opportune Wavelet packet decomposition (DWPT) in lieu of Short Term Fourier Transformation (STFT) or FFT.
KEYWORDS: Psycho-Acoustic, DWPT, STFT, FFT
Numerical Analysis of heat transfer in a channel Wit in clined baffles
Paper Index :: :07.4721/048012023
This is a numerical analysis of, forced convection heat transfer inside a channel of rectangular section, containing some inclined baffle plates. We have used a numerical model based on a finite-volume method, and The SIMPLE algorithm  was adopted to solve the coupling pressure-velocity problem. Effects of various parameters of the baffles, such as, baffle's inclination angle for two cases 'channel with one or two baffles' on isotherms, streamlines, temperatures distributions and Nusselt number values was studied. It is concluded that baffles angle inclination has a meaningful effect on isotherms, streamlines and total heat transfer through the channel. Indeed, the increase in the baffle inclination improves heat transfer within the channel. Also, heat transfer becomes decreasingly important with adding baffles.
KEYWORDS: Forced Convection, Inclined Baffles, Finite Volume Method, SIMPLE, Quick, k-
Culture Shift in the Context of Language Shift
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048024028
The paper deals with attitudes of minority language collective – Tsovatushs – towards own culture and traditions. Our research's mainly based on the fieldwork materials undertaken by us in Zemo Alvani, the only village populated by Tsovatushs, under scientific project. The village's situated in Georgia, Akhmeta region, where it's going on the process of Tsovatush language shift to dominant Georgian. It was interesting for us till which bound were gone shifts of cultures and traditions, in parallels of language shift, when begins the danger of losing group's identity, is this coincided with danger of language loss? Initial stage of our research was built on mass inquiry method. Interview was selected from its two major types _ questioning and interview. We used vis-`a-vis' interview. The research has revealed that in Tsovatush Society there were changed parameters of spiritual culture such as ethic norms, cult performances, rituals, traditions and parameters of material culture: clothes, headdresses, jewelry, food. Love of mountain, sheep and wool and respect towards mountain churches weren't changed. It means that the key component for existence of the human and society in general, wasn't changed. By observing Tsovatush people's life there has been revealed that their culture, aesthetics, liking, rituals or life features are entirely extent in Georgian reality. The only evidence of their identity stays language and image of universe reflected in it, which won't exist after several ten years and will take away the left identity, with which they were distinguished making unique niche in diverse history of mankind.
KEYWORDS: Culture Shift, Identity, Material Culture, Spiritual Culture, Tsovatushs.
Research Issues in MEMS Resonators
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048029039
MEMS resonators have started replacing the quartz crystals and SAW resonators in RF transceivers because of their inherent advantages like high quality factor, small size, robustness and easy integrability with supporting electronics. The paper presents the developments that have taken place in MEMS resonators. Some of the issues in the design and development of electrostatically transduced MEMS resonators have been identified through the literature survey. Applications of MEMS resonators and few of the commercially available MEMS resonators are discussed
KEYWORDS: MEMS Resonators, optimization, resonance frequency, quality factor, motional impedance.
Removal of Coke during Steam Reforming of Ethanol over La-CoOx Catalyst
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048040048
An active La-CoOx catalyst with 10 wt% lanthanum (assigned as 10La-Co) was prepared by an impregnation method. The 10La-Co sample was further calcined under 300, 500 and 700 ℃ for 3 h (assigned as C300, C500 and C700, respectively). Catalytic activities toward the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) were tested in a self-designed fixed-bed reactor. Prior to the reaction, the sample was activated by reduction with hydrogen at 200 ℃ for 3 h. The SRE tests indicated that both the 10La-Co and C300 samples possessed better activity than the C500 and C700 samples. The time-on-stream of the 10La-Co catalyst could persist 60 h and no coke accumulated on the surface of the catalyst. According to the products of CO2 and CO distribution in the SRE reaction and the XRD characterization of used catalyst, we suggested that the formation of La2O2CO3 came from the interaction of La2O3 with CO2 product. Under reforming reaction conditions, La2O2CO3 species can further react with the deposited carbon on an active metal surface; the accumulated carbon from the reforming process can therefore be effectively removed and prolonged the lifetime of catalyst.
KEYWORDS: Deposited carbon, Lanthanum oxycarbonate, Production of hydrogen, Removal of coke, Steam reforming of ethanol.
Convergence Theorems for Implicit Iteration Scheme With Errors For A Finite Family Of Generalized Asymptotically Quasi-Nonexpansive Mappings In Convex Metric Spaces
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048049055
In this paper, we prove the strong convergence of an implicit iterative scheme with errors to a
common fixed point for a finite family of generalized asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings in convex
metric spaces. Our results refine and generalize several recent and comparable results in uniformly convex
Banach spaces. With the help of an example we compare implicit iteration used in our result and some other
KEYWORDS: Implicit iteration process with errors, Generalized asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive
mappings, Common fixed point, Strong convergence, Convex metric spaces
Experimental Investigation of Pedal Powered Centrifugal Pump
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048056060
The objective of this paper was to design, fabricate and experimentally investigate the working of Pedal Powered Centrifugal Pump (PPCP) which used in small drinking water supply and garden irrigation. PPCP consists of a centrifugal pump operated by pedal power. The centrifugal pump is positioned on its stand in such a way that driven shaft of the centrifugal pump is butted to the bicycle wheel. By pedaling the bicycle, the bicycle wheel rotates, thereby rotating the centrifugal pump which in turns discharges water from the sump. PPCP provides drinking water and irrigation in remote areas where electricity is not available. PPCP is not only free from pollution but also provide healthy exercise. PPCP reduces the rising energy costs. PPCP is designed as a portable one which can be used for irrigation in various places. The experimental investigation was executed and performance of the PPCP was carried out at different rpm. The results indicate that the PPCP had given a considerable amount of discharge and head. The PPWP requires only manual power thereby reducing the utility bill considerably. Experimental result shows that discharge of about 0.0025m3/sec can be obtained for around 140rpm.
KEYWORDS: Pedal Powered Centrifugal Pump, Discharge
Common Fixed Theorems Using Random Implicit Iterative Schemes
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048061069
The aim of this paper is to prove two convergence theorems of two random implicit iterative
schemes to a common random fixed point in Banach spaces. MATHEMATICS SUBJECT CLASSIFICATION: 47H10, 54H25
KEYWORDS: Mappings, Implicit Iterative Schemes, Measurable Mappings, Separable Banach
Circuit for Square Root of Multiplication
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048070073
A circuit which accepts two input dc voltages VI, V2 and produces an output voltage VO =
V I V 2 by using double dual slope principle with op-amps and analog switches is described in this paper.
Verification of the feasibility of the circuit is established by way of test results on a proto type.
KEYWORDS: Integrator, flip flop, comparator, transistor switch and peak detector
Non-vacuum solutions of five dimensional Bianchi type-I spacetime in f (R) theory of gravity
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048074082
The present paper is dealt with the study of the exact non-vacuum perfect fluid solutions of five dimensional Bianchi-type-I space-time in the metric version of f ( R ) gravity considering stiff matter to obtain energy density and pressure of the universe on the lines of M. Sharif and M. Farasat Shamir (2010). In particular, we obtain two exact solutions which correspond to two models of the universe in higher five dimensional Bianchi type-I space-time. The function f ( R ) are also evaluated for both the models. Finally the physical properties of these models have been discussed.
KEYWORDS: Higher order theory of gravitation, f ( R ) theory of gravity, Five dimensional Bianchi type-I
Some new exact Solutions for the nonlinear schrödinger equation
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048083086
In this paper, we apply the generalized Bernoulli sub-ODE method to seek exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations arsing in the theory of mathematical physics. For testing the validity of this method, we use it to derive exact solutions for the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation. As a result, some exact solutions for it are successfully found with the aid of the mathematical software Maple.
KEYWORDS: sub-ODE method, travelling wave solutions, exact solution, nonlinear evolution equation,
nonlinear Schrödinger equation
A generalized bernoulli sub-ODE Method and Its applications for nonlinear evolution equation
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048087090
In this paper, with the aid of the mathematical software Maple, we derive explicit exact travelling wave solutions for the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equation by the generalized Bernoulli sub-ODE method. The method appears to be efficient in seeking exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, and can be applied to solve many other nonlinear evolution equations.
KEYWORDS:Bernoulli sub-ODE method, travelling wave solutions, exact solution, evolution equation,
Fitzhugh- Nagumo equation
TQM: A Quality and Performance Enhancer
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/048091094
The present day industry is facing a very aggressive economic situation. In order to stay competitive it is a must to explore new styles to manage excellence in business. This paper primarily discusses one of such techniques called total quality control (TQM), the various concepts of TQM by highlighting the different dimensions, approaches and benefits in detail. Further states the need and importance of TQM in overall organization enhancement along with brief description of history. The survey also reveals the benefits of implementation of this technique that show positive impact on the performance of any organization. In addition, presents a research problem that was identified, which states that TQM can be put into practice by small scale industry so as to reap the benefits of TQM as a research proposal.
KEYWORDS:Quality, approach, excellence, dimensions, impact