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Volume 4 ~ Issue 7 (July 2014)
Experimental Investigation of Pedal Driven Hacksaw
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/04700105
The objective of this paper was to design, fabricate and experimentally investigate the working of Pedal Driven Hacksaw(PDH). PDH is working on Slider Crank Mechanism. The experiment was done using PDH and plywood workpieces. The main parts of PDH are hack saw, reciprocating rod welded to the pedal of a bicycle, flywheel, sprocket and chain drive. The hack saw is connected with the reciprocating rod. By pedaling the bicycle the reciprocating rod moves to and fro, the hack saw will be moving with the rod. The plywood to be cut is placed under the hack saw. Thus the plywood can be cut without any external energy like fuel or current. Since this uses no electric power and fuel, this is very cheap and best. The performance of the PDH was compared with Hand Hacksaw at different rpm. The results indicate that the PDH had given better, accurate and faster cuts when compared with hand hacksaw at different rpm. PDH reduces the effort of cutting plywood to a great extent. When compared to the Power Saw the PDH requires only manual power thereby reducing the utility bill considerably. Experimental result shows that cutting depth of about 17 mm can be obtained in one cycle of strokes for around100rpm.
Key words: Pedal Driven Hacksaw, Slider Crank Mechanism
Phonetic Transcription- A Framework for Phonetic Representation of Sound Structures
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/047006011
Implementing phonetics to Natural language is a Herculean task. The first step for the phonetic implementation is to generate a phonetic dictionary. Phonetic dictionary is very important as it plays a vital role in identifying the essential components of the gigantic vocabulary in the speech recognition system of natural language. Language like English needs phonetic transcriptions because the English spelling does not tell us how to pronounce it. Pronunciation is very important for communication as it vitalizes rapid transition to practical concern. There is lot of ongoing research in multilingual speech recognition. Phonetic dictionary is utmost important for any speech recognition system and hence the key goal of the paper is to build a phonetic dictionary for English language. The paper aims at building dictionary for identifying the phonetic transcriptions of International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) and American English alphabets phonetically. The paper also gives a detailed explanation about the rules of the phonemes.
KEYWORDS: Natural Language Processing (NLP), Phonetics, Acoustic phonetics, Phonemes, Phonetic transcriptions, WordNet.
The Impact of Silver Nanoparticles on Plant Biomass and Chlorophyll Content
Paper Index :: :07.4721/047012020
Applications of nanoparticles by industry and its disposal is a new concerned for environment. Depending upon the concentration of particles and its exposure time causes negative impact on V.radiata and B.campestris seedlings. V.radiata was the only species among two test plants which was found to be resistance to Ag nanoparticle and ion solution. Significant inhibition on shoot fresh weight of V.radiata (p=0.008) and B.campestris (p=0.002) was observed at 1000 μg/mL silver nanoparticle solution after treatment period. V.radiata showed significant retardation on dry weight of root at 1000 μg/mL of Ag+ ions solution after 12th day. The decrease on shoot dry weight with increase in nanoparticle and ion concentration was also observed after 12th day. Exposure to 1000 μg/mL of Ag nanoparticles reported significant retardation on total chlorophyll content V.radiata (p=0.001) and B.campestris (p=0.001) when compare to control after 12th day of treatment. After the treatment period no significant inhibition on chlorophyll ratio was observed when exposed to both Ag nanoparticle and ion solutions. Transmission Electron Microscope reveals breakage of cell wall and vacuoles of test plants which shows the toxic nature of Ag nanoparticles inside treated root cells.
KEYWORDS: Chlorophyll, Concentration, Nanoparticles, Toxic and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).
The Potential Use of Acid Treated Dried Sunflower Seed Hull as a Biosorbent for the Removal of Textile Effluent Dye from Aqueous Solution.
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/047021030
Biosorption potential of acid treated sunflower seed hull as an alternative, low-cost biosorbent in the removal of textile effluent dye from aqueous solutions was studied. Sunflower seed hull was milled and treated with 0.05M hydrochloric acid, dried and used as adsorbents for the removal of reactive textile dyes from aqueous effluent from the cotton industries. The parameters investigated were initial solution pH (2- 10), dried sunflower seed hull (DSSH0 dosage (2 -25 g/L), temperature (20 – 65 oC) and initial dye concentration (1.7 – 15g/L). Batch equilibrium data were modeled by Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The sorption kinetic properties were studied using pseudo first and second order, and Elovich model. The equilibrium data best fitted the Langmuir model while the sorption kinetic data were successfully described with pseudo- second order model for DSSH.
Analysis of Surface Condition of Polymeric Insulators for High Voltage Power Transmission Line Applications Using Partial Discharge Analysis
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/047031040
In recent decays polymeric insulators are mostly preferred for high voltage power transmission line applications. However, severe pollution deposits on the surface of the insulator and aging of the polymeric insulators due to thermal and ambient stresses lead to reduction in its insulation strength. This paper deals with analysis of partial discharge characteristics of high voltage polymeric insulators with the aim to understand the influence of thermal aging at different pollution conditions. In this work, laboratory based tests are carried out as per IEC 60507 under ac voltage, at different humidity and at different contamination levels using sodium chloride as a contaminant, on virgin and thermal aged polymeric insulator. Partial discharge signals are acquired through a PD monitoring system which is able to collect the PD waveforms along with patterns. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of PD pulses are studied to understand the influence of thermal aging of polymeric insulator. From the obtained results, we could infer that the performance of outdoor polymeric insulator reduces with thermal aging, which will lead to surface erosion and degradation of the insulating material
KEY WORDS: power transmission line, insulator, silicone rubber, partial discharge, frequency spectrum, pollution severity.
Contemplation of Pollution Severity Analysis Of Virgin And Thermal Aged Polymeric Insulators For High Voltage Applications
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/047041048
This paper deals with analysis of thermal aged polymeric insulators. The analysis is based on partial discharge technique which is an effective and most efficient method almost applied in all the High Voltage power transmission and distribution system. In this work, laboratory based tests are carried out under ac voltage, at different humidity and at different contamination levels using Sodium Chloride, on virgin polymeric insulator. The insulator was thermally aged in laboratory inside the heating chamber for sixty days. This treatment represented the conditions similar to as those in the field. The Partial discharge is acquired through a PD monitoring system which is able to collect the PD waveforms along with patterns. Time domain and frequency domain characteristics of PD pulses are studied to imply the comparative assessment between the virgin and thermal aged polymeric insulator. From various results, we could infer that the performance of outdoor polymeric insulator deteriorates with thermal aging.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control over a Circular Path by Means of Manual Takeoff and Automatic Landing
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/047049053
The present paper advices a platform used for research of standard unmanned aircraft flight
scenarios. Autopilot control method was used to model an unmanned aircraft flight in the line of sight. Ideas of
manual takeoff and automatic landing were tested. Authors present to researchers the aircraft control test
results. In the essence of the presented approach is the creation of highly simplified control from the pilot point
of view. Such a method allows the operator to control the airplane through abrupt inputs to the control panel
without leading to a crash.
KEYWORDS:Flight control, Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) autopilot, Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
A Regression Test Case Selection and Prioritization for Object-Oriented Programs using Dependency Graph and Genetic Algorithm
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/047054064
Regression testing is very important activity in software testing. The re-execution of all test cases during regression testing will be costly. The effective and efficient test case selection from the existing test suite becomes very critical issue in regression testing. This paper presents an evolutionary regression test case prioritization for object-oriented software based on dependence graph model analysis of the affected program using Genetic Algorithm. The approach is based on optimization of selected test case from test suite T. The goal is to identify changes in a method's body due to data dependence, control dependence and dependent due to object relation such as inheritance and polymorphism, select the test cases based on affected statements and ordered them based on their fitness by using GA. The number of affected statements determined how fit a test case is good for regression testing. A case study was reported to provide evidence of the feasibility of the approach and its benefits in increasing the rate of fault detection and reduction in regression testing effort. The goodness of this ordering is measured using Average Percentage of rate of Faults Detection (APFD) metric to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the approach. It was observed that our proposed approach is more efficient and effective in regression testing
KEYWORDS:Regression testing, regression test case, evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithm, regression test case prioritization, and system dependence graph.
Analytical Approach and Mechanical Estimate of Vibration Behavior in Presence Of Ball Bearings
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/047065076
Whether for industrial, transportation or complex systems, ball bearing are considered as major factor in kinematics rotating systems. Apart from their strategic role in the drive assemblies, these mechanical components can require an increased rate of reliability.Bearings turbines and rotating machines are primordial in most mechanical components which contribute directly to the performance of automotive and aerospace engines through reliability. Due to their role as liaison between fixed and moving parts, any failure could have catastrophic consequences such as loss of engine use.This research is aimed to develop the analytical fundamentals details of new model which is dedicated to the dynamic behavior of rotating ball bearings. Theoretical research will be detailed enough to provide a simple model that lends easily to programming, but powerful enough to incorporate the effect of a maximum of influential parameters on the vibration of bearings.The essence of this work is to present an analytical model of a specific type single of row effect balls (SKF 6004). This study is a first step dedicated to define the geometric characteristics, and in second time to determine the equations governing the distribution of responsibilities within the ball bearing.
KEYWORDS:ball bearing, rotating systems, reliability, dynamic behavior, vibration
Manufacturing and Comparative Analysis of Threaded Tube Heat Exchanger with Straight Tube Heat Exchanger
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/047077085
To intensify the heat transfer from the heat exchanger surface to fluid, it is possible to increase convection coefficient, widen temperature difference between surface and fluid or increase the surface area across which convection occurs. Extended surfaces, in the form of longitudinal or radial fins are common in applications where the need to enhance the heat transfer between a surface and an adjacent fluid exists. Fins are commonly used in extended surface exchangers. To minimize the size of heat exchangers, fins are used to increase the surface area and the heat transfer rate between the heat exchanger surface and the surroundings. Both the conduction through the fin cross section and the convection over the fin surface area take place in and around the fin, the temperature value is limited by the type of material and production technique. Due to all above, finned tube heat exchangers are used in different thermal systems for applications where heat energy is exchanged between different media. Applications range from very large to the small scale (tubes in heat exchangers, the temperature control of electronic components).The subject, which is investigated in this paper, is concentrated on increasing heat transfer rate by provided extended surfaces like threads. By providing threads, heat transfer area increases and it leads to better heat transfer due to turbulence.
KEYWORDS:Heat transfer co-efficient, Nusselt number, Reynolds number, Thermal conductivity