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Volume 4 ~ Issue 1 (January 2014)
Computation of Irrigation Water Requirements, Its Managements and Calendering In Mulberry Crop for Sustainable Sericulture under Tamil Nadu Conditions
Paper Index :: :07.4721/04101019
Water Is Undoubtedly Elixir Of Life. Whether It Be For Irrigation, Drinking & Sanitation Or For The Protection Of Natural Ecosystems & Providing Goods And Services For Growing Populations, Without Water Life On Earth Is Just Impossible And Hence It Is "Lifeline". India Is The Second Largest Silk Producing Country Next To China In The World And Tamil Nadu Occupies The Fourth Position In Raw Silk Production In The Country. Cultivation Of Mulberry Plant Is Mainly For Its Leaves The Sole Food For The Silkworm, Bombyx Mori L. For Commercial Production Of Raw Silk. Mulberry Is Cultivated In About 1.86 Lakh Ha. Area In India. Of The Total Mulberry Area Above 80% Is Under Irrigation Conditions. Where As In Tamil Nadu State Out Of 10,809 Ha. Mulberry Plantation About 95% Of Garden Is Under Irrigated Conditions Reflect The Importance Of Irrigation For Mulberry Crop. As Irrigation Method Adopted In Mulberry By Farmers Is Of Traditional Open Type Applied Without Assessment Of Actual Requirement Of Water For The Crop Which Results In Poor WUE And Huge Water Loss Due To Conveyance, Seepage And Evaporation Etc.,. To Find An Efficient Irrigation Water Management System In Mulberry Cultivation, A Field Level Experiment Drawn On Split Split Plot Design In Established Mulberry Garden Under 3'x3' Plant Spacing With Ruling MR2 Variety And High Yielding V1 Popular Variety Being Popularized In Tamil Nadu With Three Types [Furrow (Traditional) Sprinkler & Drip (Modern)] And Three Levels Of Irrigation Water Equal To 100; 70 And 50% Cumulative Epan Scheduled @ 50% SMD In Furrow Method And Same Levels In Both Sprinkler & Drip Scheduled On Alternate Day Was Conducted In Namackal District Of Tamil Nadu During 2004 -'06 For Eight Crops. The Results Of The Experiments Conducted Revealed That Micro-Irrigation Systems I.E., Drip Performed Well At Any Level Of Irrigation Followed By Sprinkler And The Least In Furrow Method. Further Maximum Irrigation Water Savings Of 61.2 And 32.7% Observed Under Micro Irrigation (Drip) As Against Farmers Practice And Actual Irrigation Water Requirement For Mulberry Based On FAO's Modified Penman And Monteith Equation Respectively With Improvement In Water Use Efficiency [WUE] As High As 300% Without Affecting The Sustainable Productivity Of Leaf. The Quality Of Leaf Verified By Bio-Assay And In Terms Of Quality Of Raw Silk And Productivity Revealed The Cost Benefit Ratio Of 1:2.12 And 1:1.99 In V1 And MR2 Mulberry Garden Respectively As Against 1:1.57 Recorded Under Traditional Furrow Irrigation Method. The Status Of Sericulture, Importance Of Irrigation Water Management With Calendaring For Mulberry Crop For Sustainable Development Cope Up With SWOT Analysis Of The Industry In Tamil Nadu Are Discussed In The Paper.
KEYWORDS : Mulberry Crop; Irrigation Water Management; Water Use Efficiency; Sustainable Productivity; Raw Silk; Cost Benefit Ratio.
Application of high resolution sequence stratigraphy in Fuyu reservoir of Yumin area
Paper Index :: :07.4721/04102026
The stratigraphy, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy is based, and based on core, logging and seismic data synthetically, the organic combination of seismic data and drilling data analysis, there are one long-term cyclic sequence boundaries(SB1), and two lake flooding surface(FS1 & FS2)be distinguished in the study area. Then combined with sedimentary cycle characteristics, the study area may be divided into two long-term cycles (the equivalent of three grade sequence), and six mid-term cycles (the equivalent of four grade sequence) and 17 short term cycles (the equivalent of five grade sequence), which structure high resolution sequence stratigraphy of Fuyu reservoir in Yumin area, and lay the foundation for the study of sedimentary microfacies and the study of accumulation rule.
Keywords: Yumin area Fuyu reservoirin High resolution sequence stratigraphy Stratigraphic framework
Experimental Studies on High Strength Concrete by using Recycled Coarse Aggregate
Paper Index :: :07.4721/041027036
Aggregate is one of the main ingredients in producing concrete. It covers 75% of the total for any concrete mix. The strength of the concrete produced is dependent on the properties of aggregates used. However, the construction industry is increasingly making higher demands of this material and is feared to accommodate the many requests at one time. Hence need for an alternative coarse aggregate arises. The aim for this project was to determine the strength and durability characteristics of high strength structural concrete by using recycled coarse aggregates, which will give a better understanding on the properties of concrete with recycled aggregates. The scope of this project was to investigate the possibility of using low cost recycled coarse aggregates as an alternative material to coarse aggregate in high strength structural concrete. The experimental investigation were carried out using detailed strength and durability related tests such as compressive strength test of cubes, split tensile strength test of cylinders, modulus of elasticity tests acid resistance test, test for saturated water absorption and porosity. The tests were conducted by replacing the coarse aggregates in high strength concrete mixes by 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% of recycled coarse aggregates. A 50% replaced mix with reduced w/c ratio was also tested. From the experimental investigation it was found that recycled coarse aggregates can be used for making high strength concretes by adjusting the w/c ratio and admixture contents of the mix.
Keywords: Concrete, High Strength Concrete, Recycled Aggregates, Recycled concrete aggregates
Delineation of Magnetic Zones of Sokoto Basin, In Northwestern Nigeria, Using Aeromagnetic Data
Paper Index :: :07.4721/041037045
The Sokoto Sedimentary Basin in northwestern Nigeria, is situated between latitudes 10o 30″ N to 14o 00″ N and longitude 3o30″ E to 7o 00″ E with an estimated area of 59,570 km2.Weused visual interpolation method to digitized twenty nine aeromagnetic maps of the Basin, the data obtained was used to produce the Total Magnetic Intensity and the Residual Maps.The Residual Magnetic Map was subjected to Upward continuation techniques; applied at 2km, 3km, 5km, 7km, 10km and 15km. The results of the studiesdelineated areas of higher sedimentations such as Isah,Rabah, TalataMafara andGandi in the northeastern part of the area.These areas of relatively thicker sediments,identified in this study, are therefore the most probable sites for prospect of hydrocarbon accumulation in the area.
KEYWORDS:Magnetic Anomaly,Total magnetic Intensity Map, Residual map.
Numerical Solution of Second Order Nonlinear Fredholm- Volterra Integro Differential Equations by Canonical Basis
Paper Index :: :07.4721/041046051
This paper deals with the construction of Canonical Polynomials basis function and used to find approximation solutions of Second order nonlinear Fredholm – Volterra Integro Differential Equations. The solutions obtained are compared favorably with the solutions obtained by Cerdik-Yaslan et. al . One of the advantages of the method discussed is that solution is expressed as a truncated Canonicals series, then both the exact and the approximate solutions are easily evaluated for arbitrary values of x in the intervals of consideration to obtain numerical values for both solutions. Finally, some examples of second order nonlinear Fredholm – Volterra Integro Differential Equations are presented to illustrate the method.
Keywords: Canonical Polynomials, Nonlinear Fredholm – Volterra integro Differential Equations, Approximate solution
Bifurcation and Stability Analysis in Dynamics of Prey-Predator Model with Holling Type IV Functional Response and Intra-Specific Competition
Paper Index :: :07.4721/041052061
This paper deals with the dynamical behaviour of discrete Prey-Predator model with Holling type IV involving intra-specific competition. This model represents mathematically by nonlinear differential equations. The existence, uniqueness and boundedness solutions of this model were investigated. The locally asymptotic stability conditions of all possible equilibrium points were obtained. The stability/instability of nonnegative equilibria and associated bifurcation are investigated by analyzing the characteristic equations. Moreover, bifurcation diagram are obtained for different values of parameters of this model. Finally, numerical simulation was used to study the global and rich dynamics of this model
Keywords: Differential equations, Prey-predator model, Functional response, Holling type IV functional response, Stability analysis, Bifurcation.
Face Recognition using PCA and Wavelet Method
Paper Index :: :07.4721/041062065
This paper proposes a new method of face recognition which is used for face recognition by Wavelet with PCA method. For face recognition we have used a two-step method, first Wavelet is used to transform the faces to a more discriminated space and then principal component analysis (PCA) is applied. The proposed method produced a significant improvement which includes a substantial reduction in error rate and in time of processing during the obtaining PCA orthonormal basis related poses and variations. In this proposed system, a methodology is given for improving the robustness of a face recognition system based on two well-known statistical modeling methods to represent a face image: Principal Component extract the discriminates features from the face. Preprocessing of human face image is done using Gabor wavelets which eliminates the variations due to pose, lighting and features to some extent. PCA extract low dimensional and discriminating feature vectors and these feature vectors were used for classification. The classification stage uses nearest neighbour as classifier. This proposed system will use the ORL face data base with 100 frontal images corresponding to10 different subjects of variable illumination and facial expressions.
Keywords: Face recognition, Gabor Wavelet transform, Principal Component Analysis