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Vol ||3|| Issue ||3 ||

1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21011
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Electromagnetic Survey of Erosion in Awba, Ibadan, Nigeria Embankment Dam
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: F.O Aitsebaomo || O.A Adeyemi || H.A Quadri
Pages No. :: 01-05
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0330105
Full PDF ::

The study was conducted to find possible leakages associated with dams as well as finding mitigation measures to reduce dam failures. The Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) equipment was used to measure the conductivity of the subsurface at a spacing of 5m and 10m. The measured data were converted to filtered real data using a filter operator. Linear features presumed to be fractures were inferred from the VLF-EM profile. These fractures were less than 9m in depth. In all, eight local positive peak amplitudes depicting areas of high conductivity and suggesting possible areas of seepages were identified on the filtered (EM) response. The results suggest internal erosion at distances of 72m, 80m, 85m along traverse 1 and 25m, 30m, 33m, 70m and 82m along traverse 3 from the spillway. Based on these results, it's therefore necessary to embark on mitigation measures such as replacements of the rock slabs and removal of the underlying mud sediments to enhance the longevity of the dam.

Keywords –Electromagnetic, Fractures, Conductivity, Seepage, Erosion, Embankment


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2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26028
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Activation, Concentration, and Expression of Metallothionein-1 On Sea Urchin as Biomonitoring Heavy Metal Cadmium
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Dominggus Rumahlatu ||Aloysius Duran Corebima ||Mohamad Amin ||Fatchur Rohman
Pages No. :: 06-12
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/03306012
Full PDF ::

Molecular techniques such as immunohistochemistry, ELISA and western blotting is highly beneficial to determine the existence of an environmental stressor, such as cadmium (Cd) heavy metal by looking at its activation, concentration and expression toward Metallothionein-1 (MT-1) protein. In this study, conducted experiment for 4 weeks, in order to investigate effect of Cd heavy metal treatment toward MT-1 protein of sea urchin Deadema setosum. This study was conducted in LIPI Ambon, Indonesia laboratory in 100 × 60 × 70 cm3 aquarium 6 tank. Each tank was filled with 200L of seawater that being changed once a week. Concentration of treatment were 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.0 μg/L Cd solution. Each tank was filled with 7 individual of D. setosum as 7 replication. MT-1 activation examination was done in liver organ of D. setosum using immunohistochemistry, MT-1 concentration measurement was done using ELISA, while MT-1 expression examination was done using western blotting at Physiology Laboratory of Medical Faculty of Brawijaya University, Indonesia. Data concerned with concentration of MT-1 was analyzed using One Way Anova and advance test was one using 0.05 Duncan Test. Result of this study showed that Cd treatment is highly significant in increasing concentration of MT-1; higher Cd content would resulted higher concentration of MT-1. Concentration of MT-1 in concentration 12 μg/L is the highest compared to control. Histological view of liver organ of D. setosum experiencing MT-1 protein activation based with immunohistochemistry is highly appropriate with each recorded concentration of of MT-1 protein. This results showed that MT-1 has the potential as seawater pollution biomonitoring of Cd heavy metal pollution viewed from D. setosum biomolecular level.

Keywords –Cadmium, Deadema setosum, Metallothionein-1, Pollution Biomonitoring

[1] Nordic, Cadmium Review. Denmark: Prepared by COWI A/S on behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers (2003).
[2] Gbaruko, B.C and O.U. Friday, Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in some fauna and flore, Email: (2007).
[3] Zhou, Q., J.B. Zhang, J.J. Fu, J.B. Shi and G.B. Jiang, Biomonitoring: an appealing tool for assessment of metal pollution in the aquatic ecosystem, Anal Chim Acta, 606, 2008, 135–150.
[4] Schutzendubel, A., P. Schwanz, T. Teichmann, K. Gross, R. Langenfeld-Heyser, D.L. Godbold and A. Polle, Cadmium-Induced Changes in Antioxidative Systems, Hydrogen Peroxide Content, and Differentiation in Scots Pine Roots1, Plant Physiology, 127, 2001, 887–898.
[5] de Michele, R., E. Vurro, C. Rigo, A. Costa, L. Elviri, Di Valentine, M. Careri, M. Zottini, S. di Topi and F.L. Schiavo, Nitric oxide is involved in cadmium-induced Programme cell death in Arabidopsis suspension cultures, Plant Physiology, 150, 2009, 217-228.
[6] Flora, S.J.S., M. Mittal and A. Mehta, Heavy metal induced oxidative stres & its possible reversal by chelation therapy, Indian J. Med. Res, 128, 2008, 501-523.
[7] Agnello, M., S. Filosto, R. Scudiero, A.M. Rinaldi and M.C. Roccheri, Cadmium induces an apoptotic response in sea urchin embryos, Cell Stress & Chaperones, 12, 2007, 44–50.
[8] Agnello, M., S. Filosto, R. Scudiero, A.M. Rinaldi and M.C. Roccheri, Cadmium accumulation induces apoptosis in P. Lividus embryos, Caryologia, 59, 2006, 403-408.
[9] Patrick, L, Toxic metals and antioxidants. Part II the role of antioxidant in arsenic and cadmium toxicity – toxic metals part II. Alternativer Medicine Review, 8, 2003, 106-128.
[10] Krichah, R., K.B. Rhouma, D. Hallègue, O. Tébourbi, V. Joulin, D. Couton, and M. Sakly, Acute Cadmium Administration Induces Apoptosis in Rat Thymus and Testicle, but not Liver, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 12, 2003, 589-594.
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[12] Olive, L., J. Sisk and J. Bressler, Involvement of DMT1 in uptake of Cd in MDCK cells" role of protein kinase C. Am. J. Physiol Cell., 281, 2001, 793-800.

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 25057
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Restoring Corrupted Images Using Adaptive Fuzzy Filter
Country :: India
Authors :: Vandana S. Khobragade || Sunita Munde
Pages No. :: 13-19
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033013019
Full PDF ::

The proposed histogram adaptive fuzzy (HAF) filter is particularly effective for removing highly impulsive noise while preserving edge sharpness. This is accomplished through a fuzzy smoothing filter constructed from a set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules, which alternate adaptively to minimize the output mean squared error as input histogram statistics change. An algorithm is developed to utilize input histogram to determine parameters for the fuzzy membership function. As compared to the conventional median filters (MF), the proposed method has the following merits: it is simple and it has superior performance compared to other existing ranked-order filters (including MF) for the full range of impulsive noise probability

Keywords:Histogram adaptive fuzzy (HAF) filter, median filters , membership functions.

[1]. G. Arce,R. Foster, "Detail preserving ranked order based filter for image processing," ASSP-37, pp. 83–98, 1989. (references)
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[5]. H.Kong and L.Guan, "A noise-exclusive adaptive filtering framework for removing impulse noise in digital image". IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems, 422-428,1998.
[6]. P.Yu and C.S.Lee"Adaptive Fuzzy Median Filter"International symposium on artificial neural networks,25-34,1993.
[7]. E.Rumelhart, G.E.Hinton and R.J.Williams,"Learning internal representation by error propagations",Parallel distributed processing,1986.

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26030
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Therapeutic role of Indian flowers in treatment of astrointestinal Diseases caused by Vibrio species
Country :: India
Authors :: Rashmi Verma ||Reena Kumari ||Ruby Agnihotri ||Adarsh Katiyar
Pages No. :: 20-24
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033020024
Full PDF ::

There are several water-borne diseases which are highly pathogenic for humans. Among all, Vibrio genus plays a major role. In this case study of "Therapeutic role of Indian flowers in treatment of Gastrointestinal Diseases causes by Vibrio species". I have chosen seven types of Indian flowers Rosa, Tagetes, Gerbera, Gladiolus, Bellisperennnis, Polianthes tuberose and Jasminummultiflorumand prepare the flowers extract in four types of solvents (Methanol,Ethanol,Acetone and Xylene) with different concentration 50%, 75% and 100% against three Vibrio species (Vibrio cholera, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus) by using agar well diffusion method.

Keywords: Vibrio cholera, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Rosa, Tagetes, Gerbera, Gladiolus, Bellisperennnis, Polianthes tuberose, Jasminummultiflorum, Agar well diffusion method.

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[3]. investigation into its epidemiology. Arch. Intern. Med. 161: 15-21
[4]. Morris, K. (2007). Battle against antibiotic resistance is being lost. L. I. D., 7(8): 509
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5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26002
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Approach for Face Recognition using Local and Global Features
Country :: India
Authors :: Santhosh Kumar S || Gurupadagouda P.K || BasavarajMirji || Praveen Kumar A.T
Pages No. :: 25-28
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033025028
Full PDF ::

Face Recognition using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) for Local and Global Features involves recognizing the corresponding face image from the database. The face image obtained from the user is cropped such that only the frontal face image is extracted, eliminating the background. The image is restricted to a size of 128 × 128 pixels. All images in the database are gray level images. DCT is applied to the entire image. This gives DCT coefficients, which are global features. Local features such as eyes, nose and mouth are also extracted and DCT is applied to these features. Depending upon the recognition rate obtained for each feature, they are given weightage and then combined. Both local and global features are used for comparison. By comparing the ranks for global and local features, the false acceptance rate for DCT can be minimized

Keywords: Discrete Cosine transform, Local feature, Global feature.

[1]. Yao-Jiunn Chen, Yen-Chun Lin," Simple Face-detection Algorithm Based on Minimum Facial Features ",The 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON) Nov. 5-8,
[2]. Sanjay Kr Singh, Ashutosh Tripathi, Ankur Mahajan, Dr S Prabhakaran "Analysis of Face Recognition in MATLAB", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 3, Issue 2, February 2012
[3]. ZIAD M. HAFED AND MARTIN D. LEVINE "Face Recognition Using the Discrete Cosine Transform" ,International Journal of Computer Vision 43(3), 2001
[4]. Aman R. Chadha, Pallavi P. Vaidya, M. Mani Roja "Face Recognition Using Discrete Cosine Transform for Global and Local Features", Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Recent Advancements in Electrical, Electronics and Control Engineering (IConRAEeCE)
[5]. Jae Young Choi, Yong Man Ro, Konstantinos N. Plataniotis "Color Local Texture Features for Color Face Recognition", IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 21, NO. 3, MARCH 2012
[6]. Rafel C Gonzalez,Richard E Woods "Digital Image Processing Using matlab 2nd Edn..,Pearson Education 2003
[7]. Milan Sonka,Vaclav Hlavac and Roger Boyle,"Image Processing,Analysis and Machine Vision",2nd Edn..,Thomoson Learning,2001.

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26033
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Performance Enhancement of Content Based Image Retrieval System Using Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization
Country :: India
Authors :: Bhaswati Das ||Deepak Sharma
Pages No. :: 29-36
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033029036
Full PDF ::

The retrieval performance of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems still leaves much to be desired, especially when the system is serving as an interface to an image collection covering many different topics. The problem of missing semantical information about the images leads to great numbers of false matches because of misleading similarities in the visual primitives that are retrieved. In this paper we used the feature extraction to improve the efficiency of the content based image retrieval system. Our Experimental results shows there is an improvement in proposed system.We used CLAHE(Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization)for better results. At the end we had analysed the performance of CBIR system using CLAHE and without using CLAHE by calculating precision and recall.

Keywords: CBIR(Content Based Image Retrieval, CLAHE(Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization), Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT), feature extraction, precision/recall.

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7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26052
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Topology Control across Mps Using Flow Slice in Wireless Networks
Country :: India
Authors :: Gagana. K ||Asha
Pages No. :: 37-41
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033037041
Full PDF ::

Topology control is adjusting the network topology according to some criteria. The criteria can be scalability, network efficiency and much more. In order to have an efficient network, the packets in the network should be load balanced. In this paper a novel scheme is developed which balances the load on a finer granularity. Flow slice scheme ensures uniform load sharing, intra flow packet ordering and minimum hardware complexity. The theoretical analysis in this paper is also validated through discrete event simulations

Keywords: Load Balancing, traffic measurement, switching theory.

[1] J.S. Turner, "Resequencing Cells in an ATM Switch," Technical Report WUCS-91-21, Feb. 1991.
[2] M. Henrion, "Resequencing System for a Switching Node," US Patent, 5,127,000, June 1992.
[3] J.S. Turner, "Resilient Cell Resequencing in Terabit Routers," Technical Report WUCS-03-48, June 2003.
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[6] I. Keslassy and N. Mckeown, "Maintaining Packet Order in Two- Stage Switches," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1032-1041, 2002.
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8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26050
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Effective Height of Curtailed Shear Walls for High Rise Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Country :: India
Authors :: Karim M Pathan, Huzaifa Nakhwa, Choudhary Usman, Yadav Neeraj, Shaikh Kashif
Pages No. :: 42-44
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033042044
Full PDF ::

The use of Shear walls for improving the performance of high rise concrete structures is very common now a day. It has been observed that the shear wall, if not used for full height of the structure, are also have same effectiveness in resisting the lateral loads. Here, an attempt is made to work out the height of Shear walls which will be just sufficient in resisting the lateral loads as good as the shear walls having full height equal to the height of the structure itself.

Keywords:Shear walls, lateral loads, high rise structures

[1] Alexander J Salenikovich and J Daniel Dolan, " The Racking Performance of Shear Walls with various aspect rations", Forest Product Journal, Vol. 53 No. 10 , Oct. 2003, 65-73.
[2] Anshuman. S, Dipendu Bhunia, Bhavin Ramjiyani "Solution of Shear Wall Location in Multi Storey Building" International journal of civil & structural Engineering Volume 2, No 2, 2011
[3] Garret Richard Hagen, Performance Based Analysis of A Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Building, Thesis Submitted for Masters degree, to Faculty of California Polytechnic State Univercity, San Luis Obispo, June 2012.
[4] D.L. Hutchison and T.J. Van Geldermalsen, Optimum Design of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls: Third Pacific Regional Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Wellington, May 1983, 185-197

9.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26072
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Images Using Dct
Country :: India
Authors :: Vimal, ||Mahendra Kumar Patil
Pages No. :: 45-49
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033045049
Full PDF ::

This letter proposes a method of reversible data hiding method in encrypted images using DCT.Reversible data hiding is a technique to embed additional message into some cover media with a reversible manner so that the original cover content can be perfectly restored after extraction of the hidden message. The data extraction can be achieved by examining the block smoothness. This letter adopts a scheme for measuring the smoothness of blocks, and uses the closest match scheme to further decrease the error rate of extracted-bits. The experimental results reveal that the proposed method offers better performance over side match method. For example, when the block size is set to 8×8, the error rate of the Lena image of the proposed method is 0%, which is significantly lower than 0.34% of side match method

Keywords:DCT, closest match, image encryption, reversible data hiding, smoothness of blocks

[1] J. Tian, "Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 890–896, 2003.
[2] M. U. Celik, G. Sharma, A. M. Tekalp, and E. Saber, "Lossless generalized- LSB data embedding," IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 253–266, 2005.
[3] Z. Ni, Y. Q. Shi, N. Ansari, andW. Su, "Reversible data hiding," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 354–362, 2006.
[4] D.M. Thodi and J. J. Rodriguez, "Expansion embedding techniques for reversible watermarking," IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 721–730, 2007.
[5] W. Hong and T. S. Chen, "Reversible data embedding for high quality images using interpolation and reference pixel distribution mechanism," J. Vis. Commun. Image Represent,vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 131–140, 2011.
[6] D.Kundur andK.Karthik, "Video fingerprinting and encryption principles for digital rights management," Proc. IEEE, vol. 92, pp. 918–932, 2004.

10.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26075
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Run-Time Verification of Behavioral Conformance for Conversational Web services
Country :: India
Authors :: M.Radha || R.Saranya
Pages No. :: 50-54
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033050054
Full PDF ::

Transactional patterns are used to specify flexible and reliable composite Web services. A transactional pattern is a convergence concept between workflow patterns and advanced transactional models. These are of coordination patterns and as a structured transaction. This project proposes an event-driven approach to validate the transactional behavior of service compositions. The transactional behavior verification is done either at design time to validate recovery mechanisms consistency, or after runtime to report execution deviations and repair design errors, and therefore, formally ensure service execution reliability. By using the trust based rule ontology to specify and check the transactional behavior consistency of service composition, our approach provides a logical foundation to ensure service execution reliability.

[1] S. Bhiri, O. Perrin, and C. Godart, "Extending Workflow Patterns with Transactional Dependencies to Define Reliable Composite Web Services," Proc. Advanced Int'l Conf. Telecomm. and Int'l Conf. Internet and Web Applications and Services (AICT/ICIW), p.145, 2006.
[2] J.Eder and W.Liebhart, "The work flow activity model Wamo,"Proc.Int'l Conf.Cooperative Information Systems,pp.87-98,1995.
[3] M.Kamath and K.Ramamritham, "Failure Handling and Coordinated Execution of Concurrent Workflows," Proc. Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE '98), pp. 334-341, 1998.
[4] R. Kowalski and M.J. Sergot, "A Logic-Based Calculus of Events,"New Generation Computing, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 67-95, 1986.
[5] B. Medjahed,B. Benatallah, A. Bouguettaya, A.H.H. Ngu, and A.K. Elmagarmid, "Business-to-Business Interactions: Issues and Enabling Technologies," The VLDB J. vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59-85, 2003.
[6] S.Mehrotra, R. Rastogi, H.F. Korth, and A. Silberschatz, "A Transaction Model for Multidatabase Systems," Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '92), pp. 56-63, 1992.

11.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 26076
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Implementation of Techniques for Improving Web Applications Performance
Country :: Albania
Authors :: Eljona Proko || Ilia Ninka
Pages No. :: 55-59
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033055059
Full PDF ::

Over the last three decades the World Wide Web has undergone a continuous evolution. To respond to ever increasing demands in the field of web applications are constantly proposed standards and techniques in order to develop even more effective and high performance applications. These new technologies have made possible the emergence of a new generation of Web applications called Rich Internet Applications. Rich Internet Applications are built using successful technologies like Ajax. The purpose of this study is to measure and analyze the performance as one of the key topic in an application. Performance study of web applications is a complex process that depends on different factors. The methodology used in this study is testing Query Cache technique used mainly in MySql database. To have a clear view of the efficiency of this technique, besides the explanation of its configuration, we will make a comparison with real data, pre and post activating this technique. Testing is performed on an application developed by Ajax technology. The results of experiments shown that in sections with more query to be executed is a significant difference between activating and not activating the Query Cache. We conclude in this study that Query Cache it is a useful technique recommended for use in all web applications where as back-end is used MySql.

Keywords:Ajax, performance, technique, web application

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[8] G.A. Di Lucca, A.R. Fasolino, ―Testing Web-Based Applications: the State of the Art and Future Trends, Information and Software Technology Journal, Vol. 48, Issue 12, Pages: 1172-1186 (December 2006), Elsevier inc.
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