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Nigeria depends heavily on importation of goods and machines. A shift from this trend requires the development of locally available technology. The design analysis of a gear pump that aimed at delivering 4.0913x10-4m3/s (24.55litres/min) of oil was carried out in this work. Available technology was utilized in the design and fabrication of the external gear pump. The design considered relevant theories and principles which affect the performance of a pump. The parts of the pump were produced locally from available materials. The performance of the pump was characterized and the test results showed a volumetric efficiency of 81.47 per cent at a maximum delivery of 20litres/minute. The discharge dropped with increase in pressure head at a rate of -0.344Litres/m.
Keywords –External gear, Involutes, Hydraulic, Pressure, Discharge.
 Manring, N.D. and Kasaragadda, S.B. The Theoretical Flow Ripple of an External Gear Pump, Journal of Dynamic Systems,
Measurement, and Control, Transactions of the ASME, vol. 125, 2003, 396-404.
 Ragunathan, C., Manoharan, C. Dynamic Analysis of Hydrodynamic Gear Pump Performance Using Design of Experiments and
Operational Parameters, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 1, (6), 2012, 17-23.
 Majundar, S.R. Oil Hydraulic Systems, Principles and Maintenance (Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Corp. Ltd, New Delhi, 2001).
 Holland, F.A., and Chapman F.S., Pumping of liquids (Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York. 1966).
 Mott, R.L. Machine Elements in Mechanical Design, (Macmillan Publishing Comp. New York, 1992) .
 Kapelevich, A. and McNamara, T. Direct Gear Design for Optimal Gear Performance, SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing
Clinic/AGMA's EXPO' 03, Columbus, OH, 2003.
 Shigley, J.E. Mechanical Engineering Design, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Kogakusha Ltd, Tokyo, 1977.
Steganography is the art of hiding information in ways that prevent detection. Steganography is a technique to hide secret information in some other data (we call it a vessel) without leaving any apparent evidence of data alteration. All of the traditional steganographic techniques have limited information-hiding capacity. They can hide only 10 to 15 % of the data amounts of the vessel. This is because the principle of those techniques was either to replace a special part of the frequency components of the vessel image, or to replace all the least significant bits of a multivalued image with the secret information. New steganography uses an image as the vessel data, and we embed secret information in the bit-planes of the vessel. This technique makes use of the characteristics of the human vision system whereby a human cannot perceive any shape information in a very complicated binary pattern. We can replace all of the "noise-like" regions in the bit-planes of the vessel image with secret data without deteriorating the image quality. We termed our steganography "BPCS-Steganography," which stands for Bit-Plane Complexity Segmentation Steganography.We have discussed here two techniques, 1.Web based BPCS, 2.Improved BPCS.
Keywords –Stegnography, BPSC, Web based BPCS, Improved BPCS.
 IEEE paper on Review: Steganography – Bit Plane Complexity Segmentation (BPCS) Technique IJEST Vol. 2(9), 2010
 BPCS Steganography -Steve Beaullieu, Jon Crissey, Ian Smith
 IEEE paper on Web Based BPCS Steganography- IJCTEE VOLUME2ISSUE2
 http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse571- 09/ftp/stegano/index.html
 IEEE paper on High Capacity Data Embedding Technique Using Improved BPCS Steganography- ijsrp research_paper_jul2012/
 Ppt on steganography by Khan, Mohammed Minhajuddin
 E. T. Lin and E. J. Delp: A Review of Data Hiding in Digital Images, Video and Image Processing Laboratory, Indiana.
 Eiji Kawaguchi, Richard O. Eason: Principle and applications of BPCS – Steganography.
 ENEE408G Multimedia Signal Processing (fall '03) – Overview of MATLAB Programming.
Production of apple field at Bumiaji Batu tends to decrease because of soil degradation. Objectives of this study are to determine whether the addition of compost by Trichoderma viride mud cake APT01 (compost APT) increase fruit production in apple crop "Anna" in Batu Bumiaji and to determine the effectiveness of adding compost APT also included treatment with (BKS) and without (TK) Bokashi compost addition as positive and negative controls. APT and BKS addition of compost as much as 10 and 20 kg per tree is given by the time the day after defoliation. A total of 15 old apple plants 4,0 - 4,5 years with the distance between plants 2-3 meters selected at random at the study site. Each treatment is applied to the 3 plants. After 3 and 4 months defoliation and harvest time (SR3, SR4 and SPN) receive such treatment, the production of fruit produced to be calculated its amount and weight. Furthermore, the data is processed by analysis of variance ANOVA. The results showed that the addition of compost APT by 10 and 20 kg per tree to increase the amount of fruit by 58.57 and 67.14% and the weight of fruit per tree 74.51 and 135.91% compared to controls.
Keywords:trichoderma, mud cake, apples, compost
. Suhariyono, Sutopo dan Suratman, 2008. Pewilayahan Tanaman Apel di Jawa Timur, Balitjestro, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, Kota Batu, Indonesia.
. Fuchs, J.G. et al., 2011. Effects of compost on soil fertility parameters in mid and long term experiments. International Symposium "Organic Matter Management & Using Compost in Horticulture", 4-7 April 2011, University of Adelaide, Australia.
. Milosevic, T. and N. Milosevic, 2009. The effect of zeolite, organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil chemical properties, growth and biomass yield of aplle trees. Plant Soil Environ. 55 (12) : 528-535.
. Pramono dan E. Siswanto, 2007. Budidaya Apel Organik. Temu Pakar Pertanian Organik Buah-buahan, Bukittinggi Sumatera Barat, 16-19 April 2007.
. Setyorini, D., 2006. Pupuk Organik dan Pupuk Hayati. Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Bogor.
. Manurung, H. dan E.D. Resmi, 2010. Uji effektivitas bioaktivator orgadec dan em-4 terhadap pembentukan kompos. Bioprospek Vol. 7 (2) : 46-57.
. Badan Standarisasi Nasional (BSN), 2004. Spesifikasi Kompos dari Sampah Organik Domestik. SNI 1970302004.
. Isroi, M., 2008. Kompos. Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia, Bogor.
. Pacheco, C. et al., 2004. Influence of the nitrogen source on the productions of a-amylase and glucoamylase by a Trichoderma sp. From soluble starch. Biochem. Eng. 18 (4) : 403–407.
The aim of this paper is to design and implement an advanced Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal monitoring and analysis system design using FPGA. An electrocardiogram, also called an ECG or EKG, is a simple, painless test that records the heart's electrical activity. The main Tasks in ECG signal analysis are the detection of how fast heart is beating, whether the rhythm of your heartbeat is steady or irregular and the strength and timing of electrical signals as they pass through each part of your heart. An algorithm based on wavelet transforms which uses the linear quadrature mirror filter (QMF) B-spline wavelet for the detection of QRS complex is developed and implemented on FPGA. The proposed FPGA based Electrocardiogram system can operate with high performance, Time to Market, Low cost, high reliability, long-term to Maintenance, and maximum throughput of 52.67 MSamples/sec. Thus the system can work on both online and offline at maximum throughput. The system is designed and implemented using Verilog language and Xilinx FPGA respectively.
Keywords: FPGA, Electrocardiogram (ECG), FIR, Xilinx, Algorithm a Trous, P and T waves.
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering,( ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 1), January 2012.
 A. B. Ramli, and P. A. Ahmad, ―Correlation analysis for abnormal ECG signal features extraction,‖ 4th National Conference on
Telecommunication Technology, 2003. NCTT 2003 Proceedings, pp. 232-237, 2003.
 Saritha, V. Sukanya, and Y. Narasimha Murthy, ―ECG Signal Analysis Using Wavelet Transforms,‖ Bulgarian Journal of
Physics, vol. 35, pp. 68-77, 2008
 V.K.Srivastava1, Dr. Devendra Prasad, Dwt - Based Feature Extraction from ecg Signal, American Journal of Engineering
Research (AJER) e-ISSN: 2320-0847 p-SSN: 2320-0936 Volume-02, Issue-03, pp-44-50
 Rajesh Ghongade, Dr. Ashok Ghatol ―A Robust and Reliable ECG Pattern Classification are using QRS Morphological
Features and ANN‖, in IEEE Region 10 Conference 2008.
. Peter J. Ashenden, "The Designer's Guide to VHDL", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,2nd Edition,2002.
. XILINX, Internet site address: http://www.xilinx.com TestBencher pro Internet site address: http://www.syncad.com.
. M. Benmalek, A. Charef, "Digital fractional order operatorsfor R-wave detection in electrocardiogram signal," IET Signal
. S. M. Jadhav, Dr. S. L. Nalbalwar, Dr. Ashok A. Ghatol, ―modular neural network based arrhythmia classification system using
ecg signal data‖, in International Journal of Information Technology and Knowledge Management January -June 2011, Volume 4,
No. 1, pp. 205-209.
The Handoff delay is one of the major problems in Wireless Network (WLN) that needs to be solved in order to allow time-critical and real-time applications run continuously during handoff. We have developed a fast handoff scheme called NodeScan (or MobileScan) to provide a novel use of channel scanning latency by employing open system authentication. This scheme comprises two steps: firstly a client device takes advantage of the WMN architecture to maintain a list of active mesh nodes. Secondly when handoff is required, a client transmits Authentication Request frames to all mobile nodes (MNs) from the list instead of broadcasting Probe Request frames as in an active scan to discover the available MNs. This fast handoff scheme is feasible by upgrading the software only on the client side. This paper compares the theoretical handoff latency of Mesh Scan with other approaches and we demonstrate the effectiveness of our through experiment.
Keywords:Handoff, Wireless LAN, IEEE 802.11, NodeScan, Mobile Node
 Diane Tang and Mary Baker, "Analysis of a Metropolitan- Area Wireless Network," ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks. Special issue: Selected Papers from Mobicom'99, vol. 8, no. 2/3, pp. 107-120, 2002.
 B. Chambers, "The grid roofnet: a rooftop ad hocwireless network," 2002. h
 John C. Bicket, Daniel Aguayo, Sanjit Biswas, and Robert Morris, "Architecture and evaluation of an unplanned 802.11b mesh network.," in MOBICOM, 2005, pp. 31-42.
 Locusworld," http://locustworld.com
 Tropos networks," http://www.tropos.com
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 Arunesh Mishra, Minho Shin, and William Arbaugh, "An empirical analysis of the IEEE 802.11 MAC layer hando_ process," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 93-102, 2003.
 Ishwar Ramani and Stefan Savage, "Syncscan: Practical Fast Hando_ for 802.11 Infrastructure Networks," in Proc. Of IEEE INFOCOM, march 2005.M.
Green computing is now a days becoming a research problem and many scientists are focusing their attention to do research on various issues related to this discipline. The topic addresses issues such as , effective power utilization, maximizing efficiency, maximizing efficiency of utilization, correct disposal of electronic gadgets, reliable and cost effectiveness etc. One of the most used components by ICT group are personal computers and hence considered for our analysis under green computing. Any personal computer has major functional components such as CPU, memory , monitors and peripheral devices etc. Each components have certain contribution towards green computing. The main focus of attention of this paper is to study how the power consumed by each functional units are effectively minimized so as to perform the job without any deviation while using the personal computer. Power thus saving is equivalent to power generation or optimal usage. Since there are many functional units present in a personal computer, in this paper, we discuss how monitor is contributing to the green computing by conducting various studies on different types of monitors. Results and discussions are presented. The work related to the memory and the processors are in progress.
Keywords:Green computing – Personal computers – Effective Power utilization – Contribution from Monitors
 Priya Rana, "Green Computing Saves Green", Department Of Information Technology, RKGIT, Ghaziabad International Journal Of Advanced Computer And Mathematical Sciences. Vol 1, Issue 1, Dec, 2010, Pp 45-51.
 Er. Navdeep Kochhar and Er. Arun Garg, "Eco-friendly Computing: Green Computing", Baba Farid College, Bathinda, Punjab. International Journal of Computing and Business Research,ISSN (Online) : 2229-6166, Volume 2 Issue 2 May 2011.
 Tariq Rahim Soomro and Muhammad Sarwar, "Green Computing: From Current to Future Trends". World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 63 2012.
This paper presents a high step-down tranformerless single-stage single-switch ac/dc converter suitable for universal line applications (90–270 Vr m s ). The topology integrates a buck-type power-factor correction (PFC) cell with a buck–boost dc/dc cell and part of the input power is coupled to the output directly after the first power processing. With this direct power transfer feature and sharing capacitor voltages, the converter is able to achieve efficient power conversion, high power factor, low voltage stress on intermediate bus (less than 130 V) and low output voltage without a high step-down transformer. The absence of transformer reduces the component counts and cost of the converter. Unlike most of the boost-type PFC cell, the main switch of the proposed converter only handles the peak inductor current of dc/dc cell rather than the superposition of both inductor currents. Detailed analysis and design procedures of the proposed circuit are given and verified by experimental results.
Keywords:Direct power transfer (DPT), integrated buck– buck–boost converter (IBuBuBo), power-factor correction (PFC), single-stage (SS), transformerless.
. O. Garcia, J. A. Cobos, R. Prieto, P. Alou, and J. Uceda, "Single phase power factor correction: A survey," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 749–755, May 2003.
. S. Luo,W. Qiu,W.Wu, and I. Batarseh, "Flyboost power factor correction cell and a new family of single-stage AC/DC converters," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 25–34, Jan. 2005
. D. D. C. Lu, H. H. C. Iu, and V. Pjevalica, "A Single-Stage AC/DC converterWith high power factor, regulated bus voltage, and output voltage," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 218–228, Jan. 2008.
. M. K. H. Cheung, M. H. L. Chow, and C. K. Tse, "Practical design and evaluation of a 1 kW PFC power supply based on reduced redundant power processing principle," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 665–673, Feb. 2008.
. D. D. C. Lu, H. H. C. Iu, and V. Pjevalica, "Single-Stage AC/DC Boost: Forward converter with high power factor and regulated bus and output voltages," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 2128–2132, Jun.2009.
. H.-Y. Li and H.-C. Chen, "Dynamic modeling and controller design for a single-stage single-switch parallel boost-flyback–flyback converter," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 816–827, Feb. 2012.
. R. Redl and L. Balogh, "Design considerations for single-stage isolated power-factor-corrected power supplies with fast regulation of the output KI AND LU: A HIGH STEP-DOWN TRANSFORMERLESS SINGLE-STAGE SINGLE-SWITCH AC/DC CONVERTER 45 voltage," in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf. Expo., 1995, vol. 1, pp. 454–458.
. L. Antonio, B. Andrs, S. Marina, S. Vicente, and O. Emilio, "New power factor correction AC-DC converter with reduced storage capacitor voltage," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 384–397, Feb. 2007.
. E. H. Ismail, A. J. Sabzali, and M. A. Al-Saffar, "Buck–boost-type unity power factor rectifier with extended voltage conversion ratio," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1123–1132, Mar. 2008.