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Vol ||3|| Issue ||11 ||
Coast area of North Maluku is a coastal region of the island chain strung with high potential mangrove vegetation. The structure of mangrove forest vegetation is an organization of individuals in a particular space that form a stand; the composition of the mangrove forest is the typical border, the border is due to the selective effect of land salinity duration and severity of flooding tidal currents. Until now, the populations of mangrove forests data base in the coastal area in the North Maluku are not yet recorded precisely. The acceleration and expansion of the construction can be done through the preparation of a data base mapping of mangrove and mangrove development potential as a food source.The results of this research showed that: 1) the dominant mangrove forest on the function of production forests being converted is equal to 55.33% of the total area of mangroves in the North Maluku; 2) the distribution of the largest mangrove formation is the formation of mangrove forests in South Halmahera regency; and 3) the structure and composition of mangrove species known the most are: Rhizophora sp, Bruguira sp, Soneratia sp and Avicenia sp and Xylocarpus sp; these mangrove typesare spread almost at 9 (nine) districts / cities in the location of research, while the other mangrove species such as Ceriops tagal, Nypa fruticans, Camptostemon sp, and Peuteria obovata are found in several sites of the research and dispersed with moderate diversity.
KEYWORDS: structure, composition, typical mangrove in North Maluku, database
 Anonimous, 2010. Policy of the Department of Forestry in the Mangrove Ecosystem Management Functions and Benefits For Public Welfare .Department of Forestry. Its web address (Accessed, 26-03-2011).
 Anonimous , 2008.North Maluku in Rate. 2008
 Anonimous, 2008. Regulation of the Minister of Forestry No. : P.70/Menhut-II/2008 Technical Guidelines for Forest and Land Rehabilitation. Jakartaa
 Bengen, P. G. 2002. Mangrove Ecosystem Management and Introduction to Coastal and Marine Resource. IPB. Bogor
 Bengen, D.G, 2001. Ecosystems and Natural Resources Coastal and Marine. IPB. Bogor
 BP DAS Ake Malamo. 2010. Mangrove Forest Rehabilitation report
 Irawan, 1992. Marine and Coastal Ecosystems, Tarsito. Bandung
 Kartono, 2003. Ecology field data analysis methods. IPB. Bogor
Several students usually fall victims of low grade point at the end of their first year in the institution of higher learning and some were even withdrawn due to their unacceptable grade point average (GPA); this could be prevented if necessary measures were taken at the appropriate time. In this paper, a model using fuzzy logic approach to predict the risk status of students based on some predictive factors is proposed. Some basic information that has some correlations with students' academic achievement and other predictive variables were modelled, the simulated model shows some degree of risk associated with their past academic achievement. The result of this study would enable the teacher to pay more attention to student's weaknesses and could also help school management in decision making, especially for the purpose of giving scholarship to talented students whose risk of failure was found to be very low; while students identified as having high risk of failure, could be counselled and motivated with a view to improving their learning ability.
KEYWORDS: fuzzy logic, academic achievement, prediction and risk status
 B.K. Bhardwaj and S. Pal, Data Mining: A prediction for performance improvement using classification, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9(4), 2011.
 V. Juana-Maria and F. Manuel, How does one assess the accuracy of academic success predictors? ROC analysis applied to university entrance factors, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, Vol. 39 (3), 2008, pp. 325–340.
 S. Michael, Hardiness commitment, gender and age differentiate university academic performance, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 2009, pp.189–204.
 C. Ching-Hsue, et al., A new e-learning achievement evaluation model based on RBF-NN and simulation filter, Neural Computing & Application; 20, 2011, 659–669.
 L.J. Friedlander, G.J. Reid, N. Shupak, & R. Cribbie, Social support, self-esteemand stress as predictors of adjustment to university among first-year undergraduates, Journal of College Student Development,48(3), 2007, 259-274.
 K.A. Rasmani and Q. Shen, Data-driven fuzzy rule generation and its application for student academic performance evaluation; Springer, Applied Intelligence, 25, 2006, 305–319.
The microbiological quality of raw (87) and pasteurized (201) milk samples were collected randomly from 9 dairy farms in Kuwait. The aerobic plate count (APC), psychrotrophs, pseudomonas and B. cereus counts of raw milk ranged from (1X101 to 9X105), (<3 to 9X105), (3 to <105) and (3 to <105) cfu/ml respectively. In pasteurized milk samples, the number of coliforms ranged from <3 to <10 organisms/ml. The raw milk being produced on 5 out of 9 dairy was found to be of poor quality. B. cereus was counted in 23 out of 201 pasteurized milk samples which represent a health hazard.
. W. Banks, and D.G. Dalgleish, Milk and Milk Processing. In The Microbiology of Milk. (R.K.Robinson, ed.) (London : Elsevier Applied
Science, 1990) 1-35
. Food and Drug Administration. Bacteriological Analytical Manual, 7th ed. Food and Drug Administration. 7th ed. (Arlington :Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1992)
. International Dairy Federation, Bacteriological quality of cooled bulk milk. ( Doc. No. 83, IDF, Brussels, 1974)
. A. Gilmour, and M.T. Rowe, Micro-organisms associated with milk. In The Microbiology of Milk. (R.K.Robinson, ed.) ( London: Elsevier Applied Science, 1990) 37-75
. H. Luck, and H. Gavron, Quality control in the dairy industry. Dairy microbiology, 1990, 345-392.
. ANON, Kuwaiti Standards for liquid milk. Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Kuwait, 1979.
. D.D. Muir, The shelf-life of dairy products: 1, Factors influencing raw milk and fresh products. Journal of the Society of Dairy Technology, 49, 1996, 24-31.
. T. Mahari, and B. Gashe, Survey of the microflora of raw and pasteurized milk and sources of contamination in a milk processing plant in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Journal of Dairy Research, 57, 1990, 233-138
This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of some herbs and plants (rosemary, sage, marjoram, chicory, reeds grass) in which mixtures of their oil forms were used at different concentrations (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g / L) in liquid media to measure the inhibition growth of certain microbial pathogens. Each herb and plant antimicrobial inhibitory effect with the pathogens was first determined and the effective concentrations from each herb were obtained in an oil form mixture. Herb and plant oil mixture concentrations (1.2 % and 1.6 %) recorded a complete inhibition percentage (100.0 %) with all tested microorganisms, except with Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The herb and plant oil mixture was then added to meat products (sausages). The quality of the sausages in terms of the chemical composition of fresh and freezing storage at –18 oC for 6 months were then examined. In addition, phenolic compounds were also determined in the tested herbs and plants.
KEY WORDS: antimicrobial, plant oil, sausages, phonolic, pathogen
 F. M. Henry, B. E. Heath, and B. A. Pharm, Microbiology of Spices. (London, Flavour Technology, 1978) 73.
 N. B. Shankaracharya, L. J. Rao, J. P. Naik, S. Nagalakshmi, L. A. Shelef, O. A. Naglik, and D. W. Bogcn, Sensitivity of some common food-borne bacteria to the spices sage, rosemary and all spice, Journal of Food Science, (45), 1980, 1042 - 1044.
 Y. Hefnawy, and H. Youssef, Microbiological evaluation of some selected spices. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 13,1985, 145-166.
 B. M. Grohs, and B. Kunz, Use of spice mixtures for the stabilization of fresh portioned pork. Food Control. 11, 2000, 433-436.
 D. E. Conner, and L. R. Bcuchat, Effects of essential oils from plants on growth of food spoilage yeast. Journal of Food Science, 49, 1984, 429-434.
 K. A. Youdim, H. J. D. Dorman, and S. G. Deans, The antioxidant effectiveness of thyme oil, α – tocopherol and ascorbyl palmitate on evening primrose oil oxidation. Journal of Essential oil Research, 11, 1999, 643 – 648.
 International Commission of Microbiological Specifications for Foods, Microorganisms in Foods. 5: Microbiological Specification of Pathogens, Blockie. Academic and Proffessional, (New York: Imprint of Chapman & Hall, New York, 1996)
 D. Roberts, Sources of Food Infections, The lancet, Reinhold Publishing corporation New York, Chapman and Hall, Lid, London, 33(6), 1991, 859-861.
This paper describes a high power generating contactless power supply system for DC power
with 300 V and 10 A. It is composed a primary power converter and a secondary power converter. The
secondary power converter, pickup, is magnetized by the primary power converter. The primary power converter is an inverter system which is used to invert 50/60Hz power supply to 20kHz power supply. The
secondary system is used to generate DC power supply by boosting circuit. The power is transferred from the
primary to secondary through pickup. The simulation is implemented using Matlab simulink program. The
simulation and experiment data show the effectiveness of the proposed power supply system.
KEYWORDS: Contactless power supply(CPS), Pickup, Boosting circuit, Full bridge IGBT.
 E.S. Kim, D.H. Goo, J.M. Kim, D.H. Kang, B,C, Shin, Y.S. Kong, S.C. Yang, Jeonju Uni, KERI, and Shinsung ENG Co. Ltd,
"Contact-less Power Supply Using Series- Parallel Resonant Converter", KIPE, 2002.
 B.M. Song, R. Kratz and Gurol, "Contactless Inductive Power Pickup System for Maglev Applications", IEEE, 2002, pp.1586-
 T. Kojiya, F. Sato, H. Matsuki and T. Sato, "Construction of Non-contacting Power Feeding System to Underwater Vehicle
Utilizing Electro Magnetic Induction", IEEE Oceans Europe, 2005, pp.709-712.
 D.H. Kim and G.H. Hwang, "A Study on the Contactless Power Supply System for Stocker System", Journal of the Korean
Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Engineers, 2007, pp. 148-156.
 S.J. Lee, Kyungpook National University, "Contactless Power Conversion System Using the Boost Converter", KIPE, 2003.
 P. Si, A. P. Hu, S. Malpas, and D. Budgett, "Switching Frequency Analysis of Dynamically Detuned ICPT Power Pickups",
 B.D. Park, M.D. Ngo, H.K. Kim and S.B. Kim, "Development of a Digital Inverter for Brown Gas Generating System", ICASE,
This paper proposes an inpipe inspection robot with the wall-pressing force adjustment using DC motor. It is developed for long distance inspection in sea-water pipelines such as horizontal pipelines and slope pipelines with large variable diameters from 600mm to 800mm. Its mechanical design consists of two modules as driving module and control module. The driving module has three pantograph type links spaced in 120° with three caterpillar track wheels. This design makes it possible to realize the adaptation to pipe diameter and the adjustment of wall-pressing force. The control module consists of a micro controller, motor driver and sensor interface. To control the inpipe inspection robot, firstly, the inpipe inspection robot is considered as a dynamic model of mass-spring-damper system. Secondly, an observer is designed to estimate the unknown wall-pressing force to sustain the robot in pipeline. Thirdly, an algorithm of wall-pressing force generator is presented to find out an appropriate reference value of wall-pressing force. Fourthly, PID fuzzy controller is designed to make the estimated wall-pressing force track the reference values irrelatively to variable diameter of pipeline. Finally, the driving tests results of the developed inpipe inspection robot are shown to prove the effectiveness of the proposed controller and the applicability of the developed inpipe inspection robot
 S. G. Roh and H. Choi, Strategy for navigation inside pipelines with differential-drive inpipe robot, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 2002, Vol. 3(2002), pp. 2575-2580.
 A. A. F. Nassiraei, Y. Kawanura, A. Ahrary, Y. Mikuriya and K. Ishii, Concept and design of a fully autonomous sewer pipe inspection mobile robot 'KANTARO', IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation(2007), pp. 136-143.
 Y. Zhang and G. Yan, In-pipe inspection robot with active pipe-diameter adaptability and automatic tractive force adjusting, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 42, No. 12(2007), pp. 1618-1631.
 H. T. Roman, B. A. Pellegrino and W. R. Sigrist, Pipe Crawling Inspection Robots, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., Vol. 8(1993), pp. 576-583.
 A. M. Bertetto and M. Ruggiu, In-pipe Inch -Worm Pneumatic Flexible Robot, Proc. IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, Vol. 2(2001), pp. 1226-1231.
 S. C. Chung and M. S. Kim, Integrated design of servomechanisms using a disturbance observer, Trans. of KSME (A), Vol. 29, No. 4(2005), pp. 591-599.
This paper presents an adaptive tracking control method for a welding mobile manipulator with
a kinematic model in which several unknown dimensional parameters exist. The mobile manipulator consists of
the manipulator mounts on a mobile-platform. Based on the Lyapunov function, controllers are designed to
guarantee stability of the whole system when the end-effector of the manipulator performs a welding task. The
update laws are also designed to estimate the unknown dimensional parameters. The simulation and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.
 Ph. J. Mc Kerrow Introduction to Robotics, Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1991.
 H. Seraji "Configuration control of cover-counted canipulators" Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. Robo. Auto.,Vol.3, pp. 2261-2266, 1995.
 W. S. Yoo, J. D. Kim, and S. J. Na "a study on a mobile Platform-Manipulator Welding System for Horizontal Fillet Joints" Mechatronics, Vol. 11, pp. 853-868, 2001.
 T. Fukao, H. Nakagawa, and N. Adachi "Adaptive Tracking Control of a Non-holonomic Mobile Robot" Trans. Robo. Auto., Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 609-615, 2000.
 Fierro R., and Lewis F. L., "Control of a Non-holonomic Mobile Robot: Backstepping Kinematics into Dynamics", Proc. IEEE. Conf. Deci. Cont., Vol. 4, pp. 3805-3810, 1995.
 Yamamoto, Y., and Yun, X., "Coordinating Locomotion and Manipulation of A Mobile Manipulator", Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Deci. Cont., pp. 2843~2848, 1992.
 Jeon, Y. B., Kam, B. O., Park, S. S., and Kim, S. B., "Modeling and Motion Control of Mobile Robot for Lattice Type Welding", Int. J. (KSME)., Vol. 16, No 1, pp. 83~93, 2002.
 T. T. Phan, T. L. Chung, M. D. Ngo, H. K. Kim and S. B. Kim, " Decentralized Control Design for Welding Mobile Manipulator", Int. J (KSME)., Vol. 19, No 3, pp. 756~767, 2005.
The Province of North Maluku is one of the provinces in Indonesia that has the longest coastline; this province is geographically shaped by some islands. The condition of the mangrove forests on the coastal area of North Maluku currently has declined significantly both in quality and quantity from year to year. The decline of the quality and quantity of mangrove forests has resulted alarming impacts, such as increase of abrasion, reduced catches of coastal fisheries, sea water intrusion is getting further toward the land, and even surprisingly the increasing cases of malaria. There are some long term goals in relation to the implementation of Penprinas-MP3EItoward the availability of supports for universities and governments to expand access capacity toward the development of research and higher education programs in the future, especially in the forms of synergic collaboration among some parties involving universities, businesses, and governments in the development of biodiversity of mangrove forests through policy development strategy which is recommended based on the result and analysis of this study. In addition, this study will be base of direction for the development of science and technology-based life skills in order to improve the quality of life of coastal communities through appropriate technology and mangrove flour product as well as conservation toward mangrove forest biodiversity. Results of this study indicate that 1) database of mangrove destruction rate in North Maluku is stated that the lowest level of damage found in West Halmahera district while the highest level of damage found in South Halmahera district; 2) Database of life pattern and engagement of coastal communities toward the conservation of mangrove forest ecosystems shows that their perception is good, but the level of community participation and engagement in the management and conservation of mangroves in the area of mangrove ecosystems in North Maluku province varies as 37.14% relatively high level of participation (33).while the rest (10,86%) is relatively low.
KEYWORDS: life pattern, coastal communities, mangrove destruction level, mangrove database
 Anonim, 2010. Kebijakan Departemen Kehutanan Dalam Pengelolaan Ekosistem Mangrove Fungsi dan Manfaat Untuk Kesejahtraan Masyarakat. Departemen Kehutanan dan Perkebunan. Alamat webnya (Diakses, 26-03-2011).
 Anonimous, 2008. Maluku Utara dalam Angka 2008.
 Anonimous, 2008. Peraturan Menteri Kehutanan No : P.70/Menhut-II/2008 tentang Pedoman teknis rehabilitasi Hutan dan Lahan. Jakarta
 Anonimous, 2008. Peraturan Pemerintah RI No:76 tahun 2008 tentang Rehabilitasi dan Reklamasi Hutan. Jakarta
 Bengen, P. G. 2002. Pengelolaan dan Pengenalan Ekosistem Mangrove Sumberdaya Pesisir dan Lautan. IPB Bogor.
 Bengen, D.G, 2001. Ekosistem dan Sumber Daya Alam Pesisir dan Laut. IPB. Bogor.
 BP DAS Ake Malamo. 2010.Laporan Rehabilitasi Hutan Mangrove