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Vol ||2|| Issue || 07 ||

1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15075
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Graphics Processor Unit Hardware Acceleration of Levenberg-Marquardt Artificial Neural Network Training
Country :: UK
Authors :: David Scanlan|| David Mulvaney
Pages No. :: 01-07
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0270107
Full PDF ::

This paper makes two principal contributions. The first is that there appears to be no previous a description in the research literature of an artificial neural network implementation on a graphics processor unit (GPU) that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training method. The second is an initial attempt at determining when it is computationally beneficial to exploit a GPU's parallel nature in preference to the traditional implementation on a central processing unit (CPU). The paper describes the approach taken to successfully implement the LM method, discusses the advantages of this approach for GPU implementation and presents results that compare GPU and CPU performance on two test data sets

Key words: Artificial Neural Networks, Graphics Processor Unit, Levenberg-Marquardt Networks

[1] Z. Fan, F. Qui, A. Kaufman and S. Yoakum-Stover, GPU cluster for high performance computing, Proc. ACM/IEEE Conf. On Supercomputing, Pittsburgh, PA, 2004, 47-58
[2] M. Rumpf and R Strzodka, Using graphics cards for quantized FEM computations, Proc. Visualization, Imaging and Image Processing Conf., Marbella, Spain, 2001, 193-202.
[3] T. Kim and M. Lin, Visual simulation of ice crystal growth, Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH Eurographics Symp. on Computer Animation, San Diego, CA, 2003, 86-97.
[4] I.-S. Oh and C.Y. Suen, Distance features for neural network-based recognition of handwritten characters, Int. J. of Document Analysis and Recognition, 1(2), 1998, 73-88.
[5] E. Trentin, M. Gori, Robust combination of neural networks and hidden Markov models for speech recognition, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 14(6), 2003, 1519-1531.
[6] L. Behera, S. Kumar and A. Patnaik, On adaptive learning rate that guarantees convergence in feedforward networks, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 17(5), 2006, 1116-1125.
[7] X. Liang, Removal of hidden neurons in multilayer perceptrons by orthogonal projection and weight crosswise propagation, Neural Computing and Applications, 16(1), 2007, 57-68.
[8] J Misra and I Saha, Artificial neural networks in hardware: A survey of two decades of progress. Neurocomputing, 74(1–3), 2010, 239-255.
[9] R. F. Lyon and L. S. Yaeger, On-line hand-printing recognition with neural networks, Proc. 5th Int. Conf. on Microelectronics for Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems, Torino, Italy, 1996, 201-212.
[10] R. A. Ayoubi and M. A. Bayoumi, Efficient mapping algorithm of multilayer neural network on Torus architecture, IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, 14(9), 2003, 932-943.
[11] K. Oh and K Jung, GPU implementation of neural networks, Pattern Recognition, 37(6), 2004, 1311-1314.
[12] R. Dolan and G. DeSouza, GPU-based simulation of cellular neural networks for image processing, Proc. 2009 Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks, Atlanta, GA, 2009, 2712-2717.

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22065
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Pitch Attitude Control of a Booster Rocket Mr.
Country :: India
Authors :: Mr. Debabrata Roy || Prof. Raghupati Goswami || Dr. Sourish Sanyal || Prof. Amar Nath Sanyal
Pages No. :: 8-12
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/02708012
Full PDF ::
There are three important variables for a rocket moving through air and then through space. These are its yaw, pitch and roll. These variables are to be precisely controlled in order to reach the target and produce the desired effect. The paper deals with pitch attitude control of a booster rocket for launching a space-ship. Starting from its block diagram, the mathematical model has been developed and the analytical treatment has been made by indigenously made computer program and also by using MATLAB-tools for getting the desired results. Fulfillment of the specifications could be made suitably choosing the forward path gain and the coefficient of rate feedback.

Keywords –Feedback, Overshoot, Phase margin,Pitch attitude, Rocket
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Transactions on Robotics and Automation,5(3): pp. 303-314, 1989.
[3] E. Papadopoulos and S. Dubowsky, ―On the nature of control algorithms for free-floating space manipulators‖, in IEEE Trans. on
Robotics and Automation,7(6): pp. 750-758, December, 1991.
[4] D. Nenchev, Y. Umetani and K. Yoshida, ―Analysis of a redundant free-flying spacecraft/ manipulator system‖, in IEEE Trans. on
Robotics and Automation, 8(1):1-6, 1992.
[5] O. Egeland and J.R. Sagli, ―Coordination of motion in a spacecraft/manipulator system‖, in Int. Journal of Robotics Research,
12(4): pp. 366{379, August, 1993.
[6] K. Ogata, ―Modern control engineering‖, Pearson Education
[7] S.M. Shinners, ―Modern control system theory and design‖, John Wiley and Sons.
[8] A.M. Law and W.D. Kelton, ―Simulation, modeling and analysis‖, Mcgraw-Hill, New York, 2nd. Edition, 1991.
[9] J.R. Wertz (Ed.): ―Spacecraft attitude determination and control‖, .Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1978.
[10] R.H. Battin,―An introduction to the mathematics and methods of astrodynamics‖, AIAA Education Series, Reston, VA (1999).
[11] R. Pratap, ―Getting strated with MATLAB7‖,Oxford, Indian Ed,
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Inc. New York, BASEL
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3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23025
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: The Effects of Soret and Dufour on an Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow Past a Vertical Porous Plate In The Presence Of Suction or Injection
Country :: India
Authors :: K. Sarada || B. Shanker
Pages No. :: 13-25
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/027013025
Full PDF ::
The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of Soret and Dufour on an unsteady magneto hydrodynamic free convective fluid flow of a viscous incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past a vertical porous plate in the presence of suction or injection. The non – linear partial differential equations governing the flow have been solved numerically using finite difference method. The effects of the various
parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically and values of skin – friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number for various values of physical parameters are presented through tables.

Keywords –Soret number, Dufour number, Unsteady, MHD, Free convection flow, Vertical porous plate, Suction or Injection, Finite difference method.

[1] Abdul Maleque, Kh. and Abdur Sattar, Md., 2005. The Effects of Variable properties and Hall current on steady MHD laminar
convective fluid flow due to a porous rotating disk, Int. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 48, pp. 4460 – 4466.
[2] Abreu, C. R. A., Alfradique, M. F. and Telles, A. S., 2006. Boundary layer flows with Dufour and Soret effects: I: Forced and natural
convection, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 61, pp. 4282 – 4289.
[3] Afify, A. A., 2009. Similarity solution in MHD: Effects of thermal diffusion and diffusion thermo on free convective heat and mass
transfer over a stretching surface considering suction and injection, Commun. Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat., Vol. 14,
pp. 2202 – 2214.
[4] Alam, S., Rahman, M. M., Maleque A. and Ferdows, M., 2006. Dufour and Soret Effects on Steady MHD Combined Free
Forced Convective and mass transfer flow past a Semi – infinite Vertical Plate, Thammasat Int. J. Sc. Tech., Vol. 11, No. 2.
[5] Ambethkar, V., 2008. Numerical solutions of heat and mass transfer effects of an unsteady MHD free convective flow past an infinite
vertical plate with constant suction. Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 27 – 36.
[6] Anand Rao, J. and Srinivasa Raju, R., 2010. Applied Magnetic Field on Transient Free Convective Flow of an Incompressible Viscous
Dissipative Fluid in a Vertical Channel, Journal of Energy, Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 32, pp. 265 – 277.
[7] Anjali Devi, S. P., Shailendhra, K. and Hemamalini, P. T., 2011. Pulsated convective MHD flow with Hall current, heat source and
viscous dissipation along a vertical porous plate, Int. J. of App. Math. and Computation, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 141–150.
[8] Atul Kumar Singh, Ajay Kumar Singh and Singh, N. P., 2005. Hydromagnetic free convection and Mass transfer flow with Joule
heating, thermal diffusion, Heat source and Hall current, Bulletin of the Institute of mathematics academia sinica, Vol. 33, No. 3,
pp. 291 – 310.
[9] Chaudhary R. C. and Kumar Jha. A., 2008. Heat and mass transfer in elasticoviscous fluid past an impulsively started infinite vertical
plate with Hall Effect, Latin American Applied Research, Vol. 38, pp. 17 – 26.
[10] Chaudhary, R. C., Jain, P., 2007. Hall Effect on MHD mixed convection flow of a Viscoelastic fluid past an infinite vertical porous
plate with mass transfer and radiation, Ukr. J. Phys., Vol. 52, No. 10.
[11] Chin, K. E., Nazar R., Arifin N. M. and Pop, I., 2007. Effect of variable viscosity on mixed convection boundary layer flow over a
vertical surface embedded in a porous medium, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 34, pp.
464 – 473.
[12] Emmanuel Osalusi, Jonathan Side, Robert Harris, Barry Johnston, 2009. On the Effectiveness of Viscous Dissipation and Joule
Heating on Steady MHD and Slip flow of a Bingham fluid over a porous rotating disk in the presence of Hall and ion – slip Currents,
Romanian Reports in Physics, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 71 – 93.

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23023
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Analysis of Hybrid Renewable Energy System using NPC Inverter
Country :: India
Authors :: Reema Manavalan ||C Senthil Kumar
Pages No. :: 26-30
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/027026030
Full PDF ::
In a variable-speed wind energy conversion system (WECS), the mechanical frequency of the generator varies, and in order to keep the stator voltage and frequency constant, the rotor voltage and its frequency have to be varied. Thus the system requires a power conversion unit to supply the rotor with a variable frequency voltage that keeps the stator frequency constant irrespective of the wind speed. The rotor of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) driven by a wind turbine needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or feed the grid. In the scheme proposed, the rotor of the DFIG draws power either from three-phase ac mains or from a set of photo voltaic (PV) panels depending on the availability of the solar power. Maximum power point tracking techniques can be used for power extraction. A neutral point clamped multi-level inverter is used to convert the rectified voltage from ac mains and dc voltage from PV panels to a variable frequency voltage to supply the rotor.

Keywords –doubly fed induction generator; boost regulator; NPC multilevel inverter; photovoltaic panel; wind turbine

[1] S. Muller, M. Deicke, and Rik W. De Doncker, "Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines," IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, May/June 2002.
[2] Lie Xu, Liangzhong Yao and Christian Sasse, "Grid integration of large DFIG-based wind farms using VSC transmission," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 22, no. 3, August 2007.
[3] Andreas Peterson, Lennart Harnefors, and Torbjorn Thiringer, "Evaluation of current control methods for wind turbines using doubly-fed induction machines," IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 20, no. 1, January 2005.
[4] Yazhou Lei, Alan Mullane, Gordon Lightbody, and Robert Yacamini, "Modeling of the wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator for grid integration studies," IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 21, no. 1, March 2006.
[5] R. Pena, J.C. Clare, and G.M. Asher, "A doubly fed induction generator using back-to-back PWM converters supplying an isolated load from a variable speed wind turbine," IEEE Proc.-Electr. Power Appl., vol. 143, no. 5, September 1996.
[6] Juan Manuel Carrasco, and et. al, "Power-electronics systems for the integration of renewable energy sources: a survey," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 4, August 2006.
[7] PSIM A Software by Powersim Technologies. Professional Version 9.0.
[8] Jih-Sheng and Fang Zheng Peng, "Multilevel converters – a new breed of power converters", IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 32, no. 3, May/June 1996.
[9] Lingling Fan, Zhixin Miao, Subbaraya Yuvarajan, and Jacob Glower, "A comparison of slip control, FMA control and vector control in DFIG converter," 34th Annual conference of IEEE on Industrial Electronics 2008.
[10] B. K. Bose, Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001.
[11] F. Michael Hughes, Olimpo Anaya-Lara, Nicholas Jenkins, and Goran Strbac, "Control of DFIG-based wind generation for power network," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 4, November 2005.
[12] S. Yuvarajan, Dachuan Yu, and Shanguang Xu, "A novel power converter for photovoltaic applications", Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 135, 2004.

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23013
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Investigations on the Effect of Sodium Chloride in Low Temperature Hot Corrosion of Mar-M 509 AT 750oc
Country :: India
Authors :: S.P.Akbar Hussain ||Dr. V. Pandurangadu ||S.Sunil Kumar Reddy
Pages No. :: 31-34
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/027031034
Full PDF ::
Groundwater is required for continuity of life and sustainability of ecosystem. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the groundwater quality Hot corrosion is the degradation of materials caused by the presence of a deposit or ash, predominantly sodium sulfate. Hot corrosion is observed in marine and aircraft engines. It is very well established that sodium sulfate alone causes accelerated oxidation of super alloys and coatings at high temperatures, where Na2SO4 is in liquid form. In marine environments, because of low power operation the alloys are maintained at lower temperature i.e., below the melting point (m.p) of Na2SO4, the predominant form of attack is due to Low temperature hot corrosion. To establish a suitable mechanism of low temperature hot corrosion, in this study, the low temperature hot corrosion behavior of Mar-M 509 at 750oC in static air, under thermal cyclic conditions has been studied. Salt-coating technique was employed, in which alloy samples were coated with approximately 2.5 mg/cm2 of salt. The mixture of Na2SO4 and NaCl salt is applied to alloy samples to investigate mechanism of Low temperature hot corrosion. Hot corroded samples of Mar-M 509 have been analyzed using SEM, EDS, X-ray mapping, XRD, correlated with corrosion kinetics. The results indicated that Na2SO4 +25%NaCl were very aggressive compared to that of either pure Na2SO4 or Na2SO4 + 1%NaCl. Sulfidation-Oxidation mechanism has been proposed for low temperature hot corrosion of Mar-M 509.
Keywords –Hot corrosion, Mar-M 509, Low temperature hot corrosion

[1] R.L.Jones and S.T.Godamski, NRL letter Report, Nov 1977, PP:6170-773
[2] C.S.Giggins and F.S.Petit, Hot corrosion Degradation of Metals and Alloys, "A Unified Theory", Pratt & Wittney Aircraft Group, PWA report No IR 11545, June 1979.
[3] K.L.Luthra,"Mechanism of Low Temperature Hot Corrosion"' in "High Temperature Corrosion", R.A.Rapp(ed), NACE, Houston, Texas, 1983.
[4] R.L.Jones,"Cobalt oxide-SO2/SO3 Reactions in Cobalt-Sodium Mixed sulfate Formation and Low-Temperature Hot Corrosion", in "High Temperature Corrsion", R.A.Rapp(ed), NACE, Houston, Texas, 1983. PP:507.
[5] Conde J.F.G etal, "Mechanisms of Hot Corrosion in Marine Gas Turbines", High Temperature Alloys for Gas Turbines, R Brunetaud, Dcoutsouradis, J.B.Gibbons, Y.Lindlom, D.B.Meadowcroff and R.Sticler (eds), 1982 P-148.
[6] R.H.Berkalow and F.S.Pettit, "The Effect of NaCl on the Na2SO4-induced Hot Corrosion of Alloys"' in High Temperature Metal Halide Chemistry, (eds) D.L.Hilderband and C,D cubicciotti, Vol 78, The Electrochemical Society, Priniciton, 1978.
[7] P.Hancock, "Vanadic and Chloride attack of Superalloys", Journal of Material Science and Technology, Vol3, July 1987, P543

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23012
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Removal of Chromium from Real Tannery Effluent by Using Bioadsorbents
Country :: India
Authors :: A.Merly Xavier || A.Logeswari || S.Mano,
Pages No. :: 35-40
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/027035040
Full PDF ::

Several low cost biomaterials such as rice husk,saw dust and eucalyptus bark (EB) were tested for removal of chromium. All the experiments were carried out in batch process with real effluents collected from several industries. The adsorbent, which had highest chromium (VI) removal was EB. Influences of chromium concentration, contact time on removal of chromium from effluent was investigated. The adsorption data were fitted well by Langmuir isotherm..The results indicated that eucalyptus bark can be used for the removal of chromium.

Keywords –tannery effluent, eucalyptus bark, adsorption.


[1] Acar, F.N., Malkoc, E., 2004. The removal of chromium(VI) fromaqueous solutions by Fagus orientalis L. Bioresource Technol. 94,13–15.
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7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15096
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: On Existence of a Vaccination Model of Tuberculosis Disease Pandemic
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: S.A. Egbetade || M.O. Ibrahim || C.N. Ejieji
Pages No. :: 41-44
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/027041044
Full PDF ::

In this paper, we propose a vaccine-dependent mathematical model for the treatment of tuberculosis epidemics at the population level. We formulate a theorem on existence and uniqueness of solution and establish the proof of the theorem. In addition, we show that the infection is cleared from the population if

Keywords: Tuberculosis; mathematical model; existence and uniqueness of solution; basic reproduction number; vaccine


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8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23004
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Enhancing the Privacy through Pseudonymous Authentication and Conditional Communication in Vanets
Country :: India
Authors :: S. John Moses||P. Anitha Christy Angelin
Pages No. :: 45- 49
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/027045049
Full PDF ::

An efficient privacy preservation scheme named Pseudonymous Authentication-based Conditional Privacy for providing anonymous and conditional communication to the vehicles in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANET'S). The Pseudonymous Authentication based Conditional Privacy scheme provides pseudonym-based anonymity to vehicles in VANETs. The Conditional Privacy in this scheme is that the vehicles in VANET must follow certain conditions to operate, communicate and transfer messages between vehicles in order to provide privacy to the vehicles in VANET. By all means the privacy and anonymity of the vehicles in VANET must be preserved, which is the primary goal of the Pseudonymous Authentication-based Conditional Privacy scheme.

Keywords: CA, ECPP, OBU, Pseudonym, RSU, VANET

[1] R. Lu, X. Lin, H. Zhu, P. Ho, and X. Shen, ―ECPP: Efficient conditional privacy preservation protocol for secure vehicular communications,‖ in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2008, pp. 1229–1237.
[2] M. Raya and J. Hubaux, ―Securing vehicular ad hoc networks,‖ J. Comput.Security, vol.15, no. 1, pp. 39– 68, Jan. 2007.
[3] M. Raya, P. Papadimitratos, and J. Hubaux, ―Securing vehicular communications,‖IEEE Wireless Commun., vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 8–15, Oct. 2006.
[4] X. Lin, X. Sun, P. Ho, and X. Shen, ―GSIS: A secure and privacy preserving protocol for vehicular communications,‖IEEE Trans.Veh.Technol., vol.56, no.6, pp.344–345, Nov.2007.
[5] A. Studer, F. Bai, B. Bellur, and A. Perrig, ―Flexible, extensible, and efficient VANET authentication,‖ J. Commun. Netw., vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 574–588, 2009.
[6] Giorgio Calandriello, Panos Papadimitratos, Jean-Pierre Hubaux Antonio Lioy, ―Efficient and Robust Pseudonymous Authentication in VANET,‖VANET'07, 10 September, (2007).
[7] P. Golle, D. Greene and J. Staddon, Detecting and correcting malicious data in VANETs, in: Proceedings of VANET'04, 2004, pp. 29–37.
[8] P. Papadimitratos, L. Buttyan, J-P. Hubaux, F. Kargl, A. Kung, M. Raya ―Architecture for Secure and Private Vehicular Communications''in Telecommunications, ITS, vol.5, no.6, pp.1-6 ,June/July 2007.
[9] L.Butty´an,T.Holczer,I.Vajda,―On the effectiveness of changing pseudonyms to provide location privacy in VANETs‖In Proc.of Privacy in Ad hoc and Sensor Networks (ESAS 2007).

9.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22074
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Automatic Heart Sound Signal Analysis with Reused Multi-Scale Wavelet Transform
Country :: USA
Authors :: JiZhong || Fabien Scalzo
Pages No. :: 50-57
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/027050057
Full PDF ::

The heart sound signal recorded from normal adults usually contains two distinct tones S1 and S2 that occur in each heartbeat. Their respective and relative time latencies are important parameters for the monitoring of cardiac functions, diagnosis, and improved treatment. In this paper, we propose a method to locate S1 and S2 heart sound features effectively using a multi-scale wavelet transform and a threshold decision to increase the precision of the detection process. The effectiveness of the framework to extract the features is evaluated in our experiments on 35 patients presenting various cardiac conditions. The proposed algorithm reaches an accuracy of about 92% on abnormal heart sounds and 100% on control cases with respect to the ground truth established by the clinicians
Keywords: feature extraction, heart sound, multi-scale wavelet transform, reuse


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[3] A. Mahabuba, J. Vijay Ramnath, G. Anil. Analysis of heart sounds and cardiac murmurs for detecting cardiac disorders using phonocardiography. Journal of Instrument Socienty of India, 39(1), 2009: 38-41.
[4] Sh-Hussain Salleh. Different techniques and algorithms for biomedical signal processing. Malaysian Journal of Mathematical Sciences, 2(2), 2008: 133-145.
[5] Lin Yong, Xu Xiao-fei. Segmentation algorithm of heart sounds based on empirical mode decomposition. Chinese journal of biomedical engineering, 27(4), 2008: 485-489.
[6] Li Bin-bin, Yuan Zhong-fan, Yang Chun-sheng. The improved HHT algorithm and its application in the heart sound signal analysis. Journal of Sichuan university, 39(4), 2007:160-163.
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10.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21085
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: First Global Positioning System (GPS) Derived Recession Rate in Milam Glacier, Higher Central Himalaya, India
Country :: India
Authors :: Rakesh Kumar Dumka || Bahadur Singh Kotlia || Mahendra Singh Miral ||Lalit Mohan Joshi || Kireet Kumar ||Arun Kumar Sharma
Pages No. :: 58-63
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/027058063
Full PDF ::

Present day climatic circumstances seem to be accountable for accelerating the recession of most of the Himalayan glaciers. In the present study, the rate of retreat in the Milam glacier (Higher Central Himalaya, India) is calculated for the first time by using Global Positioning System (GPS) in kinematic mode survey. The GPS measurements during 2004-2005 reveal a maximum retreat of 28 m/yr in the central part of the snout. The western side of the snout recedes at a rate of about 1.7 m/yr, whereas, the northeastern side is retreating at a rate of 6.7-13.2 m/yr. Based on mean values of all points, average recession rate is calculated as 9.54±1.3 m/yr for this glacier.

Keywords: Global Positioning System (GPS); Milam glacier; Recession rate; Central Himalaya.


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