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Vol ||1|| Issue || 8 ||

1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13023
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Identification of stability lobes in high-speed machining of thin ribs
Country :: India
Authors :: Mr.P.Pal Pandian||Dr.V.Prabhu Raja||Mr. K.Sakthimurugan
Pages No. :: 01-06
Paper Index :: :07.4721/0180106
Full PDF ::
High speed machining of low rigidity structures is a widely used process in the Aeronautical industry. Along the machining of this type of structures, the so-called monolithic components, large quantities of material are removed using high removal rate conditions, with the risk of the instability of the process. Very thin walls will also be milled, with the possibility of lateral vibration of them in some cutting conditions and at some stages of machining. Chatter is an undesirable phenomenon in all machining processes, causing a reduction in productivity, low quality of the finished work pieces, and a reduction of the machine-spindle's working life. In this study, a method for obtaining the instability or stability lobes, considering dynamic behaviors of machine structure is presented. Thus a stability lobe diagram (SLD) has been developed analytically for machining of thin ribs. The frequency response function (FRF) of the milling process has been predicted along with real and imaginary parts. The mathematical tool MathCAD 8 Professional is used to simulate the FRF and stability lobes. The experiment setup is proposed to find the impulse response of the machine structure at tool tip. Finally the stable and unstable region for high speed machining process has been predicted analytically.

Key words: Chatter, High speed machining, Machining vibrations, Stability lobe diagrams, Thin ribs
[1] Mohammad R. Movahhedy, Peiman Mosaddegh, Prediction of chatter in high speed milling including gyroscopic effects, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (2006) 996–1001.
[2] W.X. Tang, Q.H. Song, S.Q. Yu, S.S. Sun, B.B. Li, B. Du, X. Ai, Prediction of chatter stability in high-speed finishing end milling considering multi-mode dynamics, Journal of materials processing technology 2 0 9 ( 2 0 0 9 ) 2585–2591.
[3] I. Bediaga, J.Mun, J.Hernandez, L.N.Lopez deLacalle, An automatic spindle speed selection strategy to obtain stability in high-speed milling, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 49 (2009) 384–394.
[4] U. Heisel, A. Feinauer, Dynamic Influence on Workpiece Quality in High Speed Milling, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 46 (1999) 996–1001.
[5] Li Zhongqun, Liu Qianga, Solution and Analysis of Chatter Stability for End Milling in the Time-domain, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics 21(2008) 169-178.
[6] T. Insperger, B.P. Mann, G. Stepanc P.V. Bayly, Stability of up-milling and down-milling, part 1: alternative analytical methods, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 25–34.
[7] Y. Altintas, G. Stepan, D. Merdol, Z. Dombovari, Chatter stability of milling in frequency and discrete time domain, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology 1 (2008) 35–44.
[8] E. Solis, C.R. Peres, J.E. Jimenez, J.R. Alique, J.C. Monje, A new analytical–experimental method for the identification of stability lobes in high-speed milling, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 44 (2004) 1591–1597.
[9] Tobias, S.A., 1965, Machine Tool Vibration, Blackie and Sons Ltd.

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13075
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Urban Hydrology - A Case Study On Water Supply And Sewage Network For Madurai Region, Using Remote Sensing & GIS Techniques
Country :: Tamilnadu, India
Authors :: B.Sundararaman||K.G Vinothan||M.Lalwin
Pages No. :: 07-12
Paper Index :: :07.4721/01807012
Full PDF ::
An increasing demand for water and sewage due to population growth, industrial development and improvement of economic require management of water & sewage transfer and improve operation of distributed network systems. The information of land use, tin and existing water supply was generated using the Resourcesat (IRS P6 LISS IV data) and Survey of India (SoI) toposheets of scale 1:25,000 and integrated them with GIS to identify the distribution supply networks of the study area. This paper explains the demand of sewage network and scarcity of water supply system in and around Madurai Region using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. In addition, GIS based analysis of the pattern of urban expansion over the demographic change and land use modifications has also indicated that urban growth has mainly taken place linearly along the major roads in the study area.

Keywords – Land use Mapping, Water supply network, Sewage network, OPSGIS, Madurai.
[1]. National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee (2000-2001), Application of Remote Sensing in Urban Hydrological studies of Delhi areas.
[2]. City Development Plan, Madurai Corporation, Madurai.
[3]. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission [JNNURM], Government of India.
[4]. Cheng.J, and Masser, 2003, Urban growth pattern modelling: a case study of Wuhan city, PR China. "Landscape and Urban Planning", Vol. 62, pp 199217.
[5]. Jensen.J.R, and D.L.Toll, 1982, Detecting residential landuse development at the urban fringe, "Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing", Vol. 48(4), pp 629643.
[6]. Ottensmann, J.R, (1977). Urban Sprawl, Land Values and the Density of Development, Land Economics, Vol. 53 (4), pp. 389400.

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13091
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Principal Component Analysis in Routing to Identify the Intrusion by Sequential Hypothesis Testing.
Country :: India
Authors :: K.Santhi M.C.A., M.Phi||P.Bakeyalakshmi
Pages No. :: 13-19
Paper Index :: :07.4721/018013019
Full PDF ::
A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) has become very important technology in security problem. Recent intrusion detection have emerged an important technique for information security systems. Many researchers have been done to improve the security for intrusion detection in MANET. In security, the unattended replica nodes attack is extremely critical, because they allow the attacker to leverage, or else the attacker may be able to capture the nodes, and then use them to injected fake data, data loss in network communication. In this proposed work a fast and effective mobile replica node detected using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) scheme in Game Theory. This work is to track the problem of replica node attacks in Mobile Ad-hoc Network from intruders and provide the best security. This paper aims to detect the intruders and increase the both speed and predictive accuracy. In this paper, the simulation experiments shown for detecting the claims and increase the trust value by decrease the number of claims.

Key words: Manet, Sequential Probability Ratio Test, Game Theory, Intrusion Detection.

[1]. Anjum.F, D. Subhadrabandhu, S. Sarkar. "Signature-based intrusion detection for wireless Ad-hoc networks," Proceedings of Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. 3, pp. 2152-2156, USA, Oct. 2003.
[2]. Anukool Lakhina, Mark Crovella, Christophe Diot, "Diagnosing Network wide Traffic Anomalies," International Journal of Networks Security, Vol.12, No.1, PP.42-49, Feb 2004.
[3]. Chatzigiannakis.V, Papavassilion.S " Diagnosing Anomalies and Identifying Faulty Nodes in Sensor Networks", Sensor Journal, IEEE, Vol.7, Issue.5, PP.637 – 645, May 2007.
[4]. Chong Eik Loo, Mun Yong Ng, Christopher Leckie, Marimuthu Palaniswami, "Intrusion Detection for Routing Attacks in Sensor Networks," International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, V.2, PP. 313–332, 2006.
[5]. Denning. D. E., "An Intrusion Detection Model," IEEE Transactions in Software Engineering, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 222-232, USA, 1987.
[6]. Farid.D.M, M.Z Rahman, "Learning intrusion detection based on adaptive Bayesian algorithm," 11th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT2008), pp. 652-656, 2008.
[7]. Hyeon-Kyn Lee, Kim,J.H, "An HMM-Based Threshold Model Approach For Gesture Recognition," Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transaction, Vol.21, Issue.10, PP.961-973, Oct 1999.
[8]. uhaKarhunen, yrki Joutsensalo, "Generalizations of Principal Component analysis, Optimization problems, and Neural Networks," Helsinki University Of Technology, Finland, Vol.8, Issue.4, PP. 549-562, April 2000.
[9]. Jun-Won Ho, Matthew Wright, Sajal K. Das, "Fast Detection of Mobile Replica Node Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Sequential Hypothesis Testing." IEEE Transaction on Mobile Computing, Vol. 10, No.6, PP.767-782, June 2011.
[10]. MohapatraP,S.V.Krishnamurthy, Ad-hoc Network Technologies and Protocols, Springer-Verlag, Business Media Inc., USA, 2005.

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 14019
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Subthreshold Leakage Reduction Using Optimum Body Bias
Country :: Faridabad, Haryana, INDIA
Authors :: Nisha Goyal||Neha Goyal||Sandeep Kaushal||Khushboo Sagar
Pages No. :: 20-23
Paper Index :: :07.4721/018020023
Full PDF ::
THE paper consists the study of effect of source to substrate bias voltage (applied to an n-channel MOSFET and a p-channel MOSFET) on the leakage current component. The optimum value which minimizes the leakage current is found for n-MOS as well as p-MOS circuit (using simulation as well as mathematical analysis). This minimization of leakage current component eventually leads to a reduction in power dissipation (standby leakage power). On application of this leakage power reduction technique, power dissipation is reduced by about 50-70%.

Keywords: Reverse body bias, subthreshold leakage, optimum value, body effect, weak inversion.

[1] A. Keshavarzi, S. Narendra, S. Borkar, V. De, and K. Roy,"Technology scaling behavior of optimum reverse body bias for standby leakage power reduction in CMOS IC's," Proc. International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design, August 1999, pp. 252-254.
[2] Massoud Pedram, "Design Technologies for Low Power VLSI", Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, 1995
[3] M. Nomura, Y. Ikenaga, K. Takeda, Y. Nakazawa, Y. Aimoto, and Y. Hagihara, "Delay and Power Monitoring Schemes for Minimizing Power Consumption by Means of Supply and Threshold Voltage Control in Active and Standby Modes", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, April 2006
[4] Kang, S and Leblebici, Y., "CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits", TMGH, 2003 [5] Ben G. Streetman and Sanjay Kumar Banerjee, "Solid state electronic devices", Prentice Hall, 2007
[6] C. Neau and K. Roy, "Optimal body bias selection for leakage improvement and process compensation over different technology generations," in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), Aug. 2003, pp. 116–121
[7] K. Nose and T. Sakurai, "Optimization of VDD and VTH for low power and high-speed applications," Proc. ASP-DAC, pp. 469–474, Jan. 2000.
[8] A. Abdollahi, F. Fallah, M. Pedram, "Minimizing leakage current in VLSI circuits," Technical Report, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, No. 02-08, May 2002
[9] K. Seta, H. Hara, T. Kuroda, et al., "50% active-power saving without speed degradation using standby power reduction (SPR) circuit," IEEE International. Solid-State Circuits Conf., February 1995, pp. 318-319
[10] Semiconductor Industry Association, International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, 2010 edition, http://public.itrs.n.

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13021
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Four Force in MOND
Country :: Nagpur, India
Authors :: Manisha R Pund||Maya Nahatkar
Pages No. :: 24-28
Paper Index :: :07.4721/018024028
Full PDF ::
The transformations of a four force in MOND theory are deduced. They differ to their relativistic
counter parts.

[1.] Oort J, Bull. Astron. Inst. Neth. 6, 249 1932
[2.] Zwicky F, Helv. Phys. Acta 6, 110 1933
[3.] Milgrom M, 1983a, Ap J, 270, 365
[4.] Milgrom M, 1983b, Ap J, 270, 371.
[5.] Milgrom M, 1983c, Ap J, 270, 384.
[6.] Bekenstein J, 2004, Phys Rev D, 70, 083509.

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13035
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Waste Plastic Treatment Using Zinc Oxide (Zno) With Activated Carbon And Produced Hydrocarbon Fuel For Petroleum Refinery
Country :: Stamford
Authors :: Moinuddin Sarker||Mohammad Mamunor Rashid
Pages No. :: 29-41
Paper Index :: :07.4721/018029041
Full PDF ::
The increase of waste PVC (code 3) plastic productions is serious environmental problem issue for today. PVC plastic consumption is increasing day by day all over the world. Out of 100% plastics 6% PVC plastic used from total all types of plastic use. PVC plastic can serve as a potential resource with the correct treatment and its converting as hydrocarbon raw materials or as a useful fuel. PVC plastic has high chlorine (Cl) content and percentage is 56% by total weight. PVC plastic incineration process needs highly energy demand and during incineration time is creation toxic chloro emission and is ceating environmental, ecology and human health problem. Chlorine component need to be removed by using alkali wash before using produce fuel. Thermal degradation process with 5% Zinc Oxide (ZnO) can reduce chlorine content result in polymer chain generating product with heavy molecular weight and some uncontrolled Cl content. The thermal degradation of waste PVC produces only 35.6% of liquid product, some light gas 34.47% and rest of residue29.93%. Thermal degradation temperature was use 75-400 ºC. This produced fuel can be used for feedstock refinery for potential energy generation.

Keywords –Waste PVC, Fuel, thermal degradation, ZnO, catalyst, activated carbon.

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[2] L. Tange, BSEF Technical Workshop on Sustainable Management for Plastics with Bromine, Tokyo, 19 November, 1999.
[3] W. Kaminsky, F. Hartmann, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39 (2000) 331. [4] J. Walendziewski, Fuel 81 (2002) 473.
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7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13092
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Study on a Reliable and Effective Cache Management Technique for DSR Protocol in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Country :: INDIA
Authors :: Mrs.K.Santhi||Dr.M.Punithavalli
Pages No. :: 42-48
Paper Index :: :07.4721/018042048
Full PDF ::

Mobile ad hoc network is a special type of wireless network in which a mobile nodes forming a temporary network without the aid of any infrastructure or centralized administration. This paper analysis about improving the performance of route cache in Dynamic Source routing protocol. The Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) for mobile ad hoc networks maintains route caches to store routes that have been found via flooding or through promiscuous overhearing. But DSR route caches have the disadvantages like stale route cache entries, incomplete error notification, and insufficient cache size etc. In this paper, they propose to develop a reliable and effective cache management technique for the DSR protocol. In this technique, initially, we estimate a combined weighted function for each route stored in the cache. Then based on the combined weight function, the routes are arranged such that routes with minimum length and traffic load, maximum energy level and freshness are listed first in the route cache. The route cache is updated such that routes with least weight functions are removed from the list. In the route prediction mechanism, when a link is likely to be broken, it will select the most reliable route as an alternate route from the sorted route cache, before the link breakage. The DSR composed of two phases, namely Route Discovery and Route maintenance, which work together to discover and maintain the source route from the source to the arbitrary destination. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) for mobile ad hoc networks maintains route caches to store routes that have been found via discovery or through promiscuous overhearing. But DSR route caches have the disadvantages like stale route cache entries, incomplete error notification, and insufficient cache size etc. So it affect the performance of DSR protocol which cause long delay, increase the packet loss, increase the overhead, and decrease the performance of protocol. Thus it requires some mechanism to improve the route cache performance in DSR protocol. This paper will discuss the different strategy of the route cache and the drawbacks of the mechanism.

Key Words: DSR, Load Balance.


[1]. Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale and Alex Zelikovsky, "Node Caching Enhancement of Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Protocols", Proceedings IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference (WCNC'05), March 2005, Volume 4, 1970- 1975.
[2]. Soon Don Kwon, Jung Shin Park and Jai Yong Lee, "A New Route Cache Scheme in On-Demand Routing Protocols for MANET", International Conference of Information Technology & Application (ICITA), 2002.
[3]. Charles E. Perkins and Elizabeth M. Royer, "Adhoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing", Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 90-100, New Orleans, LA, February 1999.
[4]. David B. Johnson, David A. Maltz and Josh Broch, "DSR: The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", In Ad Hoc Networking, edited by Charles E. Perkins, Chapter 5 (2001), pp. 139-172, 2001.
[5]. Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, "A Highly Adaptive Distributed Routing Algorithm f or Mobile Wireless Networks", Proceedings IEEE in INFOCOM '97, Sixteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Vol. 3 (1997), pp. 1405-1413, 1997.
[6]. Young-Bae Ko and Nitin H. Vaidya, "Location-Aided Routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks", Wireless Networks, Volume 6, Issue 4, Pages: 307 – 321, July, 2000.
[7]. Charles E. Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat, "Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers", ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, Volume 24, Pages: 234 - 244, Issue 4, October, 1994.
[8]. Chai-Keong Toh, "Associativity-Based Routing for Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks", Wireless Personal Communications: An International Journal, Volume 4 and Issue-2, Pages: 103 – 139, March 1997.
[9]. Alvin Valera, Winston K.G. Seah and SV Rao, "Cooperative Packet Caching and Shortest Multipath Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks", In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, , pp. 260-269, March-April, 2003.
[10]. YihChun Hu and David B. Johnson, "Ensuring Cache Freshness in OnDemand Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols", Proceedings in Second Workshop Principles of Mobile Computing, pp. 25-30, 2002.

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13093
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Impulse Noise Detection and Filtering Based On Adaptive Weighted Median Filter
Country :: Guntur, AP, India
Authors :: Irphan Ali Shaik||Mirza shafi shahsavar||K.J.Silva Lorraine||Ajesh kumar vishwanadham||Mahender Raju. T
Pages No. :: 49-54
Paper Index :: :07.4721/018049054
Full PDF ::

Improved Impulse noise Detector (IID) for Adaptive Switching Median (ASWM) filter is presented. The idea behind
the improved impulse noise detection scheme is based on normalized absolute difference with in the filtering window, and then
removing the detected impulse noise in corrupted images by using ASWM filter. This detection scheme distinguishes the noisy
and noise-free pixels efficiently. A weighted median filter, based on standard deviation within the filtering window is used in
ASWM filtering. The application of absolute difference, will distinguishes the difference between a noise free and noisy pixel
more precisely. The proposed scheme results in efficient detection of noisy pixels. Extensive simulation results show that the
proposed scheme significantly outperforms in terms of PSNR and MAE than many other variant types of median filter for
random-valued impulse noise. More over IID scheme provides better noise detection performance.

Key Words: Image filtering, Absolute difference, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Absolute Error (MEA), Median
filter, .impulse detector


[1] R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, "Digital Image Processing".Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2002.
[2] S. Akkoul, R. Lédée, R. Leconge, C. Léger, R. Harba, S. Pesnel,S. Lerondel, A. Lepape, L. Vilcahuaman, "Comparison ofimage
restoration methods for bioluminescence imaging," in ICISP 08, Cherbourg, France, 2008, vol. 5099, LNCS, pp. 163–172.
[3] A. Bovik, "Handbook of Image and Video Processing". New York: Academic Press, 2000.
[4] D. Brownrigg, "The weighted median filter," Commun. Assoc. Comput. Mach., vol. 27, pp. 807–818, Mar. 1984.
[5] S. J. Ko, Y. H. Lee, "Center weighted median filters and their applications to image enhancement," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst., vol. 38,
pp. 984–993, 1991.
[6] T. Sun, Y. Neuvo, "Detail preserving median based filters in image processing," Pattern Recognit. Lett., vol. 15, pp. 341–347, 1994.
[7] T. Chen, K. K. Ma, L. H. Chen, "Tri-state median filter for image denoising," IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 8, pp. 1834–1838, Dec.
[8] W. Luo, "An efficient detail-preserving approach for removing impulse noise in images," IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 413–
417, Jul. 2006.
[9] Y. Dong. S. Xu, "A new directional weighted median filter for removal of random-value impulse noise," IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol.
14, pp. 193 196, Mar. 2007.
[10] C. C. Kang. W. J. Wang, "Modified switching medianfilter with one more noise detector for impulse noise removal," Int. J. Electron.
Commun., no. DOI: 10.1016/j. aeue.2008.08.009, 2008.

9.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 14007
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: CAMH: Towards a Multilingual platform facilitate & Cultural competence
Country :: Nagpur, India
Authors :: Onkar S Kemkar||Dr P B Dahikar
Pages No. :: 55-59
Paper Index :: :07.4721/018055059
Full PDF ::

Cultural competence has gained attention as a potential strategy to improve quality and eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health care. Yet the motivations for advancing cultural competence and approaches taken vary depending on mission, goals, and sphere of influence. In this paper we discuss about why we need the multilingual system, proposed CAMH multilingual system, and how CAMH will become a cultural competence.

Key Words: ehealth, CAMH, Gynecology, health informatics, EMR


[1] Eysenbach G. (2001) What is e-health. J Med Internet Res 3(2):e20
[2] Europe's Information Society
[3] Priti Kalode, Onkar Kemkar and D.A.Deshpande, "International Journal Of Computational Engineering Research" ISSN: 2250–3005, Mar-Apr 2012 | Vol. 2 | Issue No.2 |254-259

10.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13082
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Design and Re-Use Of Shovadans In Today's Architecture "With Due Attention To Have Thermal Energy Of The Earth
Country :: Zanjan, IRAN
Authors :: Niloofar Ghanavati||Seyed Mohammad Behbahani||Nooshin Sarkoobi
Pages No. :: 60-64
Paper Index :: :07.4721/018060064
Full PDF ::

In old time, people were making their buildings and structures in a way to be in proportion with the climate and native culture of their area. Currently, with the most advanced science of architecture, design secrets of the old buildings have been discovered. "Shovadan" is an example of such design that was built in cold regions of Iran such as Hamadan City; so these spaces can be used in winter to use the heat of the earth. Shovadans are series of corridors and hallways of the underground that were used in cold regions by people. So, in this article, we purpose to change the Shovadan's application in order to have as a thermal tunnel to use the earth energy. They must be designed just like previous samples as a corridor in the earth, but in more depth, so we can have and use the energy of the earth in more volumes. In this case, the heat of the earth will be guided in side of the buildings, and in addition to save energy consumption, we will share the old architecture as today's style because of the developing of technology day to day.

Key Words: Sustainable Building, Shovadan, Geothermal Energy.


[1] Hossainian, G. R. (2004). "Evaluation of Climate and the Use of Solar Energy to Reduce Fuel Consumption in
Buildings", Proceeding of the Third Conference; optimizing Fuel Consumption in Buildings, Tehran, Iran, pp. 869.
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[5] Fasihi, A. (2004). "Examining the Potential for Direct Use of Geothermal Energy in Iran", Proceedings of The Third
Conference to optimize fuel consumption in buildings, Tehran, Iran, pp. 1488.
[6] Tabrizi, A. (2003). "The Energy Efficiency in the economic systems", Proceeding of Conference; optimizing Fuel
Consumption in Buildings, Tehran, Iran.
[7] Saremi, A. (1996). "Stable Values in Iranian Architecture", Published by Cultural Heritage Organization, Tehran, Iran.
[8] Saqta, A. (2002). "Solar Energy Fundamentals and Applications", Science and Technology University
Press, Tehran, Iran.