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Volume 2 ~ Issue 8



Volume 2 ~ Issue 8
1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23001
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Implementation of a 3D Graphics Rasterizer with Texture and Slim Shader on FPGA
Country :: India
Authors :: Ajay Kashyap || Ashish Sharma
Pages No. :: 01-05
Paper Index :: :07.4721/0280105
Full PDF ::

In this paper, we designed 3D graphics hardware with rasterizer having texture and slim-shader for the efficient 3D graphics accelerator. The rasterizer consists of vertical shader and triangle set-up with AAL slim-shader. We developed all modules (vertex shader, pixel shader, slim shader, clipping engine, triangle set-up engine and raster operator) of 3D pipeline on FPGA using RTL design. It is designed to support the OpenGL ES 2.0 and Shader model 3.0. This paper also gives a brief description about generic graphics pipeline and OpenGL pipeline.

Key words:3D Graphics, OpenGL, 3D pipeline, AAL, FPGA, Texturing, Shading, Rasterization.

[1] Foley, Van Dam; "Computer Graphics Principles and Practice", Second Edition, 2003.
[2] OpenGL ES, http://www.khronos.org/opengles.
[3] Richard S, "OpenGL Super bible", Third Edition, 2004.
[4] Bo Han and Bingfeng Zhou,"Efficint Video Decoding on GPUs by Point Based Rendering", Graphics Hardware, 2006.
[5] Anders Kugler," The Setup for Triangle Rasterization", 11th Euro graphics workshop on Computer Graphics Hardware, August 26- 27, Poitiers Ffrance, 1996.
[6] "An Effective Pixel Rasterization Pipeline Architecture for 3D Rendering Processors", IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol.52., No-11, PP1501-1508, November 2003.
[7] Mesa 3D Graphics Library, http://www.mesa3d.com.
[8] Z. S. Hakura and A. Guptsa," The Design and Analysis of a Cache Architecture for Texture Mapping", Proceeding of the 24th International Symposium on Computer Architecture, PP 108-120, June 1997.
[9] Hyun Jae Woo," A Design of an Effective Control and Execution Method For Geometrical Engines and Rasterization within Embedded 3D Graphics Accelerator", Yonsei Univ. Phd Thesis, 2003.12
[10] Tomas, Eric," Rel-Time Rendering", Second Edition, 2002

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23039
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: On The Zeros of Analytic Functions
Country :: India
Authors :: M. H. Gulzar
Pages No. :: 06-10
Paper Index :: :07.4721/02806010
Full PDF ::
In this paper we consider a certain class of analytic functions whose coefficients are restricted to certain conditions, and find some interesting zero-free regions for them. Our results generalize a number of already known results in this direction.

Keywords –Analytic Function , Coefficients, Zeros
[1] A. Aziz and Q. G. Mohammad, On the zeros of a certain class of polynomials and related analytic functions, J. Math. Anal.
ppl.75(1980), 495-502.
[2] A. Aziz and W. M. Shah, On the location of zeros of polynomials and related analytic functions, onlinear Studies 6 (1999), 91-
[3] N. K. Govil and Q.I. Rahman, On the Enestrom-Kakeya Theorem II, Tohoku Math.J. 20 (1968), 126-136.
[4] W. M. Shah and A. Liman, On Enestrom-Kakeya Theorem and related analytic functions, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.), Vol.
117, No.3,
August 2007359-370.

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15033
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Damage Characterization of a Thin Plate Made Of ABS under Uniaxial Solicitation
Country :: Maroc
Authors :: H. Farid|| K. Elhad || M. Elghorba || F. Erchiqui || M. Chergui
Pages No. :: 11-17
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/028011017
Full PDF ::
There is an important soaring in theuse of polymers in many industrial fields. Although they are abundantly used both in ordinary and high performance products, their versatility makesthem highly needed for newer applications; and thisrequires a detailed knowledge of their physical, chemical, rheological and mechanical properties. The determination of mechanical behavior of those materials becomes very necessary either during processing or under operation. In this work, we are interested in characterizing a notched polymeric ABS flat plate under uniaxial solicitation. TheUnified Damage Theory for characterizing and quantifying the damage is used. Our crucial aim, being thestudy of the stress concentration factor,and a contribution to the determination of the damage degree of notched structures.

Keywords –Damage mechanics, Damage theory, Uniaxial characterization, Softened polymer, ABS.

[1] Sanchez-Santana U., Comportement dynamique des matériaux et structures après sollicitation en fatigue. Thèse de doctorat, Université des sciences et technologies de Lille, 2007.
[2] Criens R.M. and Moslé H.G., Faillure of plastics, edited by W. Brostow and R.D. Corneliunssen Hauser, 1986.
[3] Brostow W., Kubàt J. and Kubàt M., Physical properties of polymers handbook, Chapter 23: Mechanical properties, American Institute of physics, James E. Mark editor, 1996.
[4] Lemaitre J. andChaboche J.L., Aspect phénoménologique de la rupture par endommagement, journal de la mécanique appliquée, Vol 2, 1978.
[5] Shia-Chung C., Rheologicalbehavior of PS polymer melt under ultra-high speed injection molding, Polymer Testing Journal, Volume 31, Issue 7, October 2012.
[6] Erchiqui1 F., Ozdemir Z., Souli M., Ezzaidi H., Dituba-Ngoma G., Neural networks approach for characterization of viscoelastic polymers, volume 89, Issue 5, October 2011.
[7] Figueredo R., Cherouat A., Une nouvelle approche dans la prise en compte de la déformation permanente et volumique induite par l'endommagement dans la mise en forme des structures caoutchoutiques, 19 ème Congrès Français de Mécanique, Marseille 2009.
[8] Davis J.R., Tensile testing second edition, ASM International, The material information society 2004.
[9] Bui-Quoc T., Dubuc J., Bazergui A., Biron A., Cumulative fatigue damage under stress-controlled conditions, Journal of Basic Engineering, Transactions of the ASME, 1971.
[10] Miner M., Cumulative damage in fatigue, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Volume 12, 1945.
[11] Jardin A., Leblond J.B., Berghezan D., Par-delà la loi de Miner pour la modélisation de la fatigue des élastomères : théorie et expérimentation, 19 ème Congrès Français de Mécanique, Marseille 2009.
[12] Miller K.J., Zachariah K.P, Cumulative damage fatigue crack initiation and state I propagation, Journal of Strain Analysis, 1977.

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11016
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Characterization of Polymeric Membranes under Large Deformations by a Neural Model
Country :: Maroc
Authors :: Farid Hicham || El Ghorba Mohamed || Erchiqui Fouad || M'hamed Chergui
Pages No. :: 18-22
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/028018022
Full PDF ::
Recent progress in polymers modeling shows a need for a precise description of the material behavior under the combined effect of the applied efforts and temperature.The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), whose operation is based on some properties of biological neurons, contain various architectures strongly interrelated treating elements and offering an alternative to conventional computational approaches. They respond in parallel to a set of inputs, and are affected by transformations more than by algorithms and procedures. They can achieve complicated operations of Input-Output without explicit relationships (linear and nonlinear) between all the presented data during a learning process.In our work, we are interested by the characterization of circular thermoplastic membranes, ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), under biaxial deformation using the free blowing technique. Hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model is considered. A neural algorithm (based on artificial neural networks) is used to model the behavior of blowing these membranes, the results are compared with experimental studies and numerical finite differences model.

Keywords membrane, Artificial Neural Networks, free blowing, hyperelasticity, ABS.

[1] Rasmussen, H. K., J. H. Christensen and S. Gottsche, Inflation of polymer melts into elliptic and circular cylinders, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 93(2–3), 245–263, 2000
[2] Joye, D. D., Poehlein, G.W. and Denson, C. D. A Bubble Inflation Technique for the Measurement of Viscoelastic Properties in Equal Biaxial Extension Flow, II Trans. Soc. Rheol., 16: 421–445, 1972
[3] J. Hopfield, Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collective computational abilities. Proceeding of the National Academy of sciences of the United States of America, 1982
[4] P. Borne, M. Benrejeb, J. Haggège, Les réseaux de neurones : présentation et applications, Paris : Technip 2007
[5] F, Erchiquiet. A, Derdouri, Analyse Expérimentale et Numérique du Analyse Expérimentale et Numérique du Comportement de Membranes Thermoplastiques en ABS et en HIPS dans le Procédé de Thermoformage, the canadian journal of chemical engineering, vol 83, 2005
[6] W. McCulloch, W. Pitts, A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, vol. 5, pp. 115-133, 1943
[7] Levenberg, K. A Method for the Solution of Certain Nonlinear Problems in Least Squares, Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 2(2): 164–168, 1944
[8] Marquardt, D. An Algorithm for Least Squares Estimation of Nonlinear Parameters, SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, 11(2): 431–441, 1963
[9] P. Davis, Levenberg-Marquardt Methods and Nonlinear Estimation, SIAM News, Vol. 26, Number 6, 1993
[10] Ogden, R. W. Large Deformation Isotropic Elasticity – on the Correlation of Theory and Experiment for Incompressible Rubberlike Solids, Proc. R. Soc. Lond., A326: 565–584, 1972
[11] F. Erchiqui, Analyse Expérimentale et Numérique du Comportement de Membranes Thermoplastiques en ABS et en HIPS dans le Procédé de Thermoformage, the canadian journal of chemical engineering, Volume 83, 2005

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22047
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Moisture Dependant Physical Properties Of Sunflower Seed (Psh 569)
Country :: India
Pages No. :: 23-27
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/028023027
Full PDF ::
Physical properties of sunflower seeds were evaluated as a function of moisture content. Various physical properties of seeds and their fractions are dependent on moisture content and appear to be important in the design of handling and processing equipment. The geometric mean diameter and sphericity of the seed were 6.69 mm and 0.63 respectively. In the moisture range from 10-18% w.b., the bulk density of the rewetted seed decreased from 330.7 to 320.88 kg/m3, true density increased from 688.10 to 725.56 kg/m3, thousand kernel weight (TKW) increased from 75.31 to 78.86 g and porosity increased from 51.94 to 55.77 %. In the same moisture range the static coefficient of friction varied from 0.51 to 0.61 for seed different surfaces, while the angle of repose varied from 18.10 to 24.07 for seed. Hardness and initial cracking force for sunflower seed decreased with increase in moisture content.

Keywords membrane, Moisture, Physical property, Porosity, Sunflower.

[1] Aydin C (2002) Physical properties of Hazel nuts PH postharvest technology. Biosystems Engineering 82: 297-303.
[2] Baryeh E A (2002) Physical properties of millet. Journal of Food Engineering 51: 39-46.
[3] Cetin M (2007) Physical properties of barbunia bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. 'Barbunia') seed. Journal of Food Engineering 80: 353-358.
[4] Chandrasekar V and Viswanathan R (1999) Physical and thermal properties of coffee. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 73: 227-234.
[5] Coskun M B, Yalcin I and Ozarslan C (2006) Physical properties of sweet corn seed (Zea mays saccharata sturt). Journal of Food and Engineering 74: 523-528.
[6] Dutta S K, Nema V K and Bhardwaj R K (1988) Physical properties of gram. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 39: 259-268.
[7] Fraser B M, Verma S S and Muir W E (1978) Some physical properties of fababeans J Agric Eng Res 23: 53-57.
[8] Ghasemi V M, Mobli H, Jafari A, Rafiee S, Heidary Soltanabadi M and Kheiralipour K (2007) Some Engineering Properties of Paddy (var. Sazandegi). International Journal of Agricultural and Biology 5: 763-766.
[9] Gupta R K and Das S K (1997) Physical properties of sunflower seeds. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 66: 1-8.
[10] Gupta R K and Prakash S (1992) The effect of seed moisture content on the physical properties of JSF-1 safflower. J Oilseeds Res 9: 209-216.
[11] ISI (1966) Indian standard method for analysis of oilseeds. IS: 3579. Indian Standards Institute, New Delhi.
[12] Joshi D C, Das S K and Mukherjee R K (1993) Physical properties of pumpkin seeds. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research 54: 219-229.

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23114
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Waste Frying Oil as Source of Alternative Energy
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Luchis Rubianto|| Sudarminto || Atikah || Soemarno
Pages No. :: 28-32
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/028028032
Full PDF ::
Waste frying oil (WFO) is a potential harmful substance to human health and environment. It can be converted as alternative energy source. Conversion WFO into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), also known as biodiesel, can be carried out by esterification to minimize free fatty acid (FFA) content, then followed by transesterification. In this process, methanol is added with potassium hydroxide (KOH) acts as catalyst. Variations of KOH percentage and reaction temperature give yields of 98%. Physical and chemical properties of FAME produced meet standard of Pertamina (Indonesian Petroleum Company), especially on density and flash point. However, the viscosity is much higher than expected.

Keywords WFO, FAME, FFA, esterification, transesterification

[1] Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Republik Indonesia, Data Strategis 2010, 2011
[2] Hayes, Kenneth; Khosla, Pramod, The complex interplay of palm oil fatty acids on blood lipids. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 109, 2007, 453.
[3] OPEC Report, World Energy Report, 2008
[4] Demirbas A, Biodiesel from waste cooking oil via base-catalytic and supercritical methanol transesterification, Energy Conversion and Management 50, 2009, 923–927
[5] Dizge N, Aydiner C, Imer DY, Bayramoglu M, Tanriseven A, Keskinler B, Biodiesel production from sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils by transesterification using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymer, Bioresource Technology 100, 2009, 1983–1991
[6] Li S, Wang Y, Dong S, Chen Y, Cao F, Chai F, Wang X, Biodiesel production from Eruca Sativa Gars vegetable oil and motor emissions properties, Renewable Energy 34, 2009, 1871–1876
[7] Lin L, Ying D, Chaitep S, Vittayapadung S, Biodiesel production from crude rice bran oil and properties as fuel, Applied Energy 86, 2009, 681–688
[8] Myint LL, El-Halwagi MM, Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil, Clean Techn Environ Policy 11, 2009, 263–27
[9] Patil PD, Deng S, Optimization of biodiesel production from edible and non-edible vegetable oils, Fuel 88, 2009, 1302–1306
[10] Bautista LF, Vicente G, Rosalı´a Rodrıguez R, Pacheco M, Optimisation of FAME production from waste cooking oil for biodiesel use, Biomass and Bioenergy XXX, 2009, 1-11
[11] Chhetri AB, Watts KC, Islam MR, Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production, Energies, 2008, 13-18
[12] Baiju B, Naik MK, Das LM, A comparative evaluation of compression ignition engine characteristics using methyl and ethyl esters of Karanja oil, Renewable Energy 34, 2009, 1616–1621

7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23072
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Analysis of Tcp Vegas in Linux 2.6.1
Country :: India
Authors :: Ashish Vikram Singh || Anjali Chauhan || Dr. Sarika Agarwal
Pages No. :: 33-37
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/028033037
Full PDF ::
This paper investigates the congestion control capabilities of TCP-CReno and Vegas introduced in Linux Kernel 2.6 for streamlining the kernel deploying CUBIC Congestion Control Protocol In this paper we use multilink multisource model which would consist of a distributed optimized algorithm and will provide a fundamental layout of delay, fairness and loss properties of TCP Vegas. It implies that Vegas stabilizes proportionally for allocation of network capacity when there is sufficient buffering in the network i.e. it clarifies the mechanism through which any kind of persistent congestion may arise and also its consequences. Thereafter, suggests how we might use active queue management to prevent it.

Keywords TCP-Reno, TCP-Vegas, AIMD

[1] Lawrence S. Brakmo and Larry L. Peterson. TCP Vegas: end to end congestion avoidance on a global Internet. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 13(8), October 1995. Available at http://netweb.usc.edu/yaxu/Vegas/Reference/brakmo.ps.
[2] Sanjeewa Athuraliya and Steven H. Low.Optimization flow control with Newton–like algorithm, Journal of Telecommunication Systems, 15(3/4):345–358, 2000.
[3] U. Hengartner, J. Bolliger, and T. Gross. TCP Vegas revisited. In Proceedings of IEEE Infocom, March 2000.
[4] Steven H. Low, Larry Peterson, and Limin Wang.Understanding Vegas: a duality model. In Proceedings of ACM Sigmetrics, June 2001.
[5] J. Mo, R. La, V. Anantharam, and J.Walrand. Analysis and comparison of TCP Reno and Vegas. In Proceedings of IEEE Infocom, March 1999.
[6] V. Paxson. End-to-end routing behaviour in the Internet. In Proceedings of SIGCOMM'96, ACM, August 1996.
[7] Feng W, Vanichpun S (2003). Enabling Compatibility Between TCP Reno and TCP Vegas. Proceeding of Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT'03), Florida, USA.
[8] Hasegawa G, Murata M, Miyahara H (1999). Fairness and Stability of Congestion Control Mechanism of TCP. Proceeding of IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM'99), New York, USA.
[9] Hong Z, Amoakoh G, Zhongwei Z (2006). Performance of STT-Vegas in Heterogeneous Wired and Wireless Networks. Proceeding of 3rdInternational Conference on Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Wired/Wireless Networks, Waterloo, Canada.
[10] Network Simulator NS-2 (2006). Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, USA. http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.
[11] Podlesny M, Williamson C (2010). Providing Fairness Between TCP NewReno and TCP Vegas with RD Network Services. Proceedings of 18th Workshop on Quality of Service (IWQoS), Beijing, China.
[12] Sing J, Soh B (2005). TCP New Vegas: Improving the Performance of TCP Vegas over High Latency Links. Proceeding of 4th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications, NCA.

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23115
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Webcam Based Intelligent Surveillance System
Country :: India
Authors :: Akshada Deshmukh || Harshalata Wadaskar || Leena Zade ||Neha Dhakate || Preetee Karmore.
Pages No. :: 38-42
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/028038042
Full PDF ::
An intelligent monitoring sensor is an application which is developed from the security point of view. The objective of this project is to develop a system that monitors the area in which it is being implemented. An Intelligent Monitoring Sensor is applicable in the area where no one is permissible to enter, also where we need to detect if any motion has been done. For this a digital camera is used. By combining the software and camera we can use this system as an Intelligent Monitoring Sensor.The Camera is used to catch the live images of the area in which it is being implemented, if any object is moving. The captured images are stored in a particular folder. The stored images will be then useful to work on. As the software detects the motion, it sends the signal from a transmitter, which is connected to the PC. The transmitter will send the wireless signal to the receiver out somewhere else, in the form of radio frequency. In this way the system will provide the security against any misdeed.

Keywords image capturing, motion detection, monitoring, receiver, security, transmitter.

[1] Bramberger, Pflugfelder, Maier, Rinner, Strobl, Schwabach, A Smart Camera for Traffic Surveillance (2000)
[2] Trans. on systems, man, and cybernetics part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol.34, NO.3, AUGUST 2004.
[3] Trans. on systems, man, and cybernetics part C: Applications and Reviews, Vol.34, NO.3, AUGUST 2004.
[4] Mohemed F Abdelkader, Integrated Motion Detection & Tracking for Visual Surveillance (ICVS 2006).
[5] Raman Maini & Dr. Himanshu Aggarwal,International Journal of Image Processing (IJIP), Volume (3) :
Issue (1)
[6] An Improved Motion Detection Method for Real-Time Surveillance Nan Lu, Jihong Wang, Q.H. Wu and Li Yang(19 February 2008).
[7] W. Hu,T. Tan,L.Wang, and S. Maybank. A survey on visual surveillance of object motion and behaviors, IEEE
[8] N.R.Mokhtar, Nor Hazlyna Harun,M.Y.Mashor, 2H.Roseline , 1Nazahah Mustafa, R.Adollah ,H. Adilah, N.F.Mohd Nasir," Image Enhancement Techniques Using Local,Global, Bright, Dark and Partial Contrast Stretching For Acute Leukemia Images" Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009 Vol I WCE 2009.
[9] Implementation of webcam based sytem for surveillance monitoring,Brahmanandha Prabhu R,Arul Prabhar A,Garima Bohra,Proceeding of ASCNT-2010,CDAC,Noida,India.
[10] G. D. Hager, and P. N. Belhumeur. Efficient region tracking with parametric models of geometry and illumination, IEEE Trans. PAMI, vol. 20.
[11] W. E. L. Grimson, C. Stauffer, R. Romano, and L. Lee. Using adaptive tracking to classify and monitor activities in a site, in Proc. IEEE Conf. CVPR, Santa Barbara, CA.