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Volume 5 ~ Issue 5 (May 2015)
Biokinetics of Removal of BOD and COD from Domestic Sewage Using Fluidized Bed Bio-Reactor
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0550106
The most harmful component of the wastewater i.e., the organic content can generally be removed in biological methods of wastewater treatment. Out of many Bio reactors that are in use to treat the wastewater, Fluidized Bed Bio Reactors (FBBR) are nowadays widely used keeping their advantages relative to the other types. An attempt has been made in the present work, to study the removal of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) from municipal wastewater using a laboratory scale model of fluidized bed bioreactor. An experimental setup is fabricated with three Acrylic glass columns of uniform dia. 6.9 cm and length 120cm. The MBBR media (plastic), Pumice stones, and Foam Pieces of uniform shape and size are considered as three different bed materials. An arrangement for sending compressed air is provided at the bottom of the columns. Municipal wastewater is taken as stock solution for conducting the study. The experiment is conducted for over 2 to 3 weeks at daily intervals, till the reactor gets stabilized and a maximum and uniform rate of percent removal of BOD and COD is obtained. The experimental data is analyzed and the results are presented in suitable formats. The Bio-kinetic study involving reaction rate kinetics and microbial growth kinetics are conducted for the zero order, first order, and second order rate of reactions. From the experimental results it is observed that the bio-kinetic reactions taking place in the reactor confirm to First order rate of reactions. Also, it is observed that Foam Pieces is proved to be a good alternative material when compared with that of the commercially available MBBR media which is made up of plastic.
KEY WORD: BOD,COD,FBBR,Growth Kinetics, Reaction kinetics
Recent Trends in Medical Imaging by using VLSI
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/05507010
Medical Image processing is a hard point to settle any problem with the help of Computer assistant. Doctor is to analyze the medical diagnosis with the help of imaging system. The CT scan, MRI scan, EEG, Ultrasound method can analyze the system of the patient with the help of images. VLSI circuit is used to make single Chips. The Chip is used as a memory element in Computers to store data. Prior to the use of VLSI components for making; the bulk of the effort spent on integration and test in MSI/SSI systems can be applied for design image processing. Now days VLSI ICs have been used widely in medical Imaging such as Ultrasound 3D display, Tumors, by 1st eliminating the recognizable neuro-anatomical structures. VLSI ICs need of medical image processing is to provide fruitful information than exists in the original medical Images etc.
KEY WORD: MSI/SSI systems, VLSI system, EEG, Ultrasound, Medical Images, 3D display, Thermocouples devices, and Complimentary Metal – Oxide Silicon (CMOS).
Implementing Agglomerative hierarchical clustering using multiple attribute
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055011012
Agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm used with top down approach. It implement with multiple attributes. In multiple attributes frequency calculation is allocated. Memory requirements are less in this process. Hierarchical clustering produce accurate result than any other algorithm. This is very less time consuming process.
KEY WORD:Hierarchical clustering, multiple attributes
Chemical Composition And Acridicid Properties Of The Moroccan Tanacetum Annuum L. Essential Oils
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055013019
The essential oil extracted from Tanacetum annuum L. by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main compounds were myrcene (13.67 %), camphor (12.67 %), sabinene (9.49 %), -pinene (7.70 %), -phellandrene (6.95 %) and chamazulene (5.87 %). The acridicid activity of this essential oil was studied. The essential oil obtained shows a toxic effect on the survival of adult locusts. The LC50 is 5 mg/l. The toxicity of the studied essential oil can be linked to one or some of these constituents. The obtained results can be exploited for the formulation of a product allowing as effective alternative natural way to control pest insects
KEY WORD:Tanacetum annuum; essential oil; chemical composition; acridicid activity; natural biocides
Design and Analysis of Auger in KAMCO Power Tiller
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055020023
The objective of this paper was to design and analyse of auger in KAMCO power tiller. An auger is a drilling device, or drill bit, that usually includes a rotating helical screw blade called a "flighting" to act as a screw conveyor to remove the drilled out material. The rotation of the blade causes the material to move out of the hole being drilled. The problem faced in KAMCO is that there is no attachment of auger to that of the tiller. Our project aims in providing multi-use to the tiller by attaching an auger arrangement with less cost. In our project we have designed an auger attachment to the present model. We have also included design, analysis (deformation, buckling and natural frequency analysis) in our project work. By constructing a structure consisting an auger on the tiller the advantages can be increased without any considerable increase in the cost. As a result the sales of the tillers can be increased in KAMCO.
KEY WORD:Tillers, Augers, Flighting, Buckling
An Energy-Efficient Dual Hop Cooperative Relay Model With Best Relay Selection
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055024028
Cooperative transmission obtains the spatial diversity gains created by sharing antennas of terminals in wireless networks mainly to overcome the channel impairments and provide high data rates. In this paper, we present end to end BER performance of dualhop wireless communication model equipped with multiple Decode and Forward relays withthe best relay selection. Orthogonal space time block coding is applied at the source terminal. Best relay is selected based on the end to end channel conditions to minimize the energy requirements. We compare the BER performance using best relay selection with the BER performance of single relay. And also, outage probability of the best relay is equivalent to the outage probability when all relays take part in thetransmission.
Energy Efficiency and Performance Analysis of Industrial (Textile Sector) Fans based on the Associated Systems
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055029035
A detailed analysis of fan system is done in this paper to analyze efficiency of industrial fan systems. Energy Audits of textile Industries of Pakistan were conducted during which it was observed that the air flow of supply and return fans was mostly lower as compared to that showed in case studies. The case studies done during audits indicate that the system is not supporting the fans performance i.e. generation of air flow, due to which more fans were added to get required air changes which lead to higher energy input. Hence, to increase the performance of fan and to reduce energy losses there is a need to develop a proper fan system.
Keywords – Energy Consumption, Energy Efficiency,Industrial Fan, Performance of Fans, Textile Sector
BCH Decoder Implemented On CMOS/Nano Device Digital Memories for Fault Tolerance Systems Design
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055036042
In this paper present two fault-tolerance systems design approaches. The fault tolerance value design for CMOS/Nano device digital memories. Two faults identified that ones for intermittent fault another transient faults. These two approaches share several key features, including the use of a group of Bose-Chaudhuri- Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for both intermittent fault tolerance and transient fault tolerance, and integration of BCH code selection and dynamic logical-to-physical address mapping. BCH codes invented in 1960s are powerful class of multiple error correction codes with well defined mathematical properties, used to correct multiple random error patterns. The mathematical properties within which BCH codes are defined are the Galois Field or Finite Field Theory. Thus, a new model of BCH decoder is proposed to reduce the area and simplify the computational scheduling of both syndrome and chien search blocks without parallelism leading to high throughput. For implementation Spartan 3E FPGA processor is used with VHDL and the simulation & synthesis are performed using Xilinx ISE 12.1.
Keywords—Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH)codes, complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS), Breklamp Massey Algorithm(BMA),very large scale integration circuits(VLSI), Field programmable gate array(FPGA)
Comparative Study of Vital Sign Using Statistical Techniques
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055043048
Senior citizens have to make frequent visits to their doctor to get their vital sign measured. The objective of this work is to design and implement a reliable system that can be used by patients on regular basis to monitor the vital sign and obtain the readings on the LCD and doctor's mobile. This work specifically deals with signal conditioning and data acquisition of pulse rate. Pulse rate is measured using pulse sensor. This system consists of a pulse sensor to measure the pulse rate when the finger is placed in between. It works on the principle of flow of blood through the finger at each pulse. These pulses are sent to the microcontroller Atmega16 for a period of 30sec.The number of pulses are counted, which gives the pulse rate. This digital output is connected to the micro controller through IC741 to measure the beats per minute (BPM) rate .This information is processed and displayed on the LCD and also sent to the doctor's mobile phone using GSM. Statistical techniques like correlation, regression, t –test and F-test are applied for comparing the readings taken by the doctor and this system. This work is useful at remote health centers and for old age people at home and in ambulance where the availability of doctor is always not possible. The design procedures, theory, experimental results and discussions of these systems are presented.
Keywords—vital sign, signal conditioning, statistical techniques, comparing, doctor, device
The Development of Programmable logic controller tutorial in the form of industrial-based learning material in vocational high schools
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055049058
This research and development aims to (1) produce teaching material of industrial-based of PLC tutorial which could improve the quality of learning at SMK, (2) examine students and teachers' response toward teaching material of developed PLC tutorial, and (3) examine the effectiveness of developed teaching material. This research and development employed Four-D model. The samples of the study were 17 students at SMKN 1 Makale South Sulawesi Indonesia.
In order to obtain the product of qualified teaching material, there were four steps were conducted, namely 1) define, 2) design, 3) development, and 4) disseminate. To examine students and teachers' response toward teaching material, questionnaire was used. The effectiveness of developed teaching material could be shown through the result of observation on students and teachers' activities which obtained through pre-test and post-test. The results of the study revealed that (1) the result of data analysis on product validity was in high valid category, 2) the result of data analysis on practicality which obtained through data analysis of students and teachers' response was in excellent category, and 3) the result of data analysis on effectiveness which obtained through the result of analysis of pre-test and post-test showed improvement of students' score. Meanwhile, the result of data analysis of observation on students and teachers' activities during the teaching and learning process was in very active category. Based on those data, it can be concluded that the developed industrial-based teaching material in the form of PLC tutorial has met the category of valid, practical and effective so that it will be feasible to be developed.
Keywords—Industry, PLC, SMK, tutorial teaching material
Synchronous Reference Frame Theory (SRF) along with PI Controller Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/055059064
The problem of voltage sags and swells and its major impact on sensitive loads are well known. To solve this problem, custom power devices are used. One of those devices is the Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), which is one of the most efficient and effective modern custom power devices used in power distribution networks. A new control algorithm for the DVR is proposed in this paper to regulate the load terminal voltage during sag, swell in the voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC). This new control algorithm is based on synchronous reference frame theory (SRF) along with PI controller is used for the generation of reference voltages for a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). These voltages, when injected in series with a distribution feeder by a voltage source inverter (VSI) with PWM control, can regulate the voltage at the load terminals against any power quality problem in the source side. It first analyzes the power circuit of the system in order to come up with appropriate control limitations and control targets for the compensation voltage control through the DVR. The control of the DVR is implemented through derived reference load terminal voltages. The proposed control scheme is simple to design. Simulation results carried out by MATLAB with its Simulink and Sim Power System (SPS) toolboxes to verify the performance of the proposed method.
Keywords—Power Quality, DVR, voltage sags/swells, VSI, Synchronous Reference Frame Theory, MATLAB/SIMULINK.