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Volume 5 ~ Issue 10 (October 2015)
The variants of New delhiMetallo – lactamase-1: A Comparative Assessment
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/050100107
The discovery of antibiotic was a step forward in the medical science. Antibiotics is surely a boon for public health as it is a life saving drug, but surplus and unnecessary use of antibiotics is harmful as it is causing bacteria to develop resistance towards them. And therefore one of the biggest problem associated with antibiotic therapy is resistance. It is not a new issue and was seen shortly after the discovery of antibiotics. Recent studies have revealed that enterobacteriaceastrains like E.coli and Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from several Indian centers and other countries are resistant to many antibiotics including the most potent antibiotic like carbapenems. And this antibiotic resistance is due to thecarbapenemase enzyme called NDM-1 (New delhiMetallo – lactamase-1) . The uncontrolled NDM-1 is now considered as a nightmare scenario and global threat due to its rapidly spreading power. They are referred as the "New Superbug". This review paper is an update of the current scenario of NDM enzyme in the world and the recent advancements made for its treatment. There is a need for active screening of microorganisms for NDM-1 and further researches should be done to develop new classes of safe antibiotics to fight these kinds of infections.
KEY WORD: NDM enzyme, superbug, antibiotic resistance, NDM variants,cladogram,percentage identity matrix
Electric Load Forecasting
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0501008012
Load forecasting is vitally important for the electric industry in the deregulated economy. It has many applications including energy purchasing and generation, load switching, contract evaluation, and infrastructure development. A large variety of mathematical methods have been developed for load forecasting. The present title discloses a novel approach for carrying out the constraints of energy requirements and minimizes the wastage of power at the workstations, mall, libraries, visiting centers, house hold requirements by actively predicting the power requirements.
KEY WORD: ANFIS, Energy Management, Fuzzy Logic, Load Forecasting
Characterization and Performance Evaluation of HSS Cutting Tools under deep Cryogenic Treatment
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/05010013019
Cutting tool materials are high quality steels made to close compositional and physical tolerances. In service, most cutting tools are subjected to extremely high and fluctuating loads. That is, the tool materials must withstand loads for long times without breaking and without undergoing excessive wear or deformation. For a tool steel at a given hardness, wear resistance may vary widely depending on the heat treatment used and wear mechanism involved in the process. Low temperature treatment is one of the most promising methods to enhance the performance of tool materials. Thus, the influence of cryogenic treatment (CT) on the performance of high speed steel (HSS) cutting tool is studied in this paper. The study was conducted on untreated and cryogenically treated HSS tools under the machining process of turning mild steel (MS) specimens. The tests on turning process were conducted at constant depth of cut (1mm) for a combination of five different cutting speeds and three different feed rates. The cutting tool parameters such as hardness and tool life, and the surface roughness of MS test specimens were measured. Also the microstructure characterization and chemical composition of the cutting tools are studied with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). It was found that the cryogenically treated HSS tools are superior to non treated ones in all the test conditions.
KEY WORD: Materials: Steel, Applications: Cutting tools, Low temperature, Techniques and methods: Electron microscopy, Physics and mechanics of materials and contact: Hardness
A Study on Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil by Use of Fly Ash, Ferric Chloride and Stone Dust
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/05010020025
Black cotton soil is susceptible to detrimental volume changes due to variation in moisture content. A clay mineral named Montomorillonite which has expanding lattice is responsible to such behavior of this soil. Because of its special structure and properties it is subjected to appreciable volume changes. These soils are covering a large area approximately around 20% of land in India. It is due to its extensive area sometimes it becomes impossible to alter the highway alignment to avoid this type of soil. In recent past years various methods of stabilizing these type of soils have been used with varied degree of results. Some of the common methods like lime stabilization, soil replacement, moisture control and, prewetting have been used. The research is still going on to find out suitable and perfect solution for the treatment of black cotton soil. According to recent research strong electrolytes can be used in place of lime due to their dissolving nature in water and readiness for adequate cation exchange .In the present research work experimental investigations were carried out by using fly ash, stone dust and ferric chloride to improve the properties of black cotton soil
KEY WORD: Fly ash, stone dust, ferric chloride, maximum dry density(M.D.D.),California Bearing Ratio(C.B.R.).
Robot social design -Facial expressions
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/05010026030
This paper addresses the design of an emotional robot; which will be able to mimic some human expressions using servomotor.This work focuses on imitates the movements of the eyes, mouth. In order to make a face having facial expressions.We did all the modeling giving versatility, in order to approach the human face and imitate their movements.Upon completion of all the mechanisms of emotional robot will be printed using a 3D printing system to complete the assembly.Design the model of an emotional robot; which can imitate the movements of the eyes, mouth, arms and fingers of one person to generate different expressions, such as joy, anger, sadness, and fear.
KEY WORD: social robot, mimic expressions, face, servo mechanisms, emotions
Tidal Flow Constructed Wetland: An Overview
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/05010031034
Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment have evolved substantially over the last 40 years. Engineered wetlands have become an effective means of advanced water treatment, including nitrogen removal. Integration of hydraulic or aeration machinery into constructed wetlands is responsible for these increased treatment capabilities. Together with improved scientific understanding of wetlands, these developments represent the emergence of a tidal flow of engineered wetlands that not only improve treatment performance, but also can successfully compete with many conventional technologies
KEY WORD: Tidal Wetland, Heavy Metals
A Novel Controlling Of Micro-Grid and Islanding Operations Of Distributed Generation Systems With Power Electronic Devices
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/05010035041
The main aim of this paper is to propose a concept of micro-grid under smart distribution
environment conditions with distributed generation resources like solar, wind and fuel etc. In present scenario, the importance of distribution sources is very high for maintaining the system reliability and also for providing backup generation under islanding condition and also as well as in grid-connected conditions. For meeting these limitations this paper proposes a new control structure called power-voltage- current controller. Basically, the main aim of these controller is to provide flexible and robust distributed generation operation control characteristics such as (a) control of PQ and PV in grid connected mode. (b) To provide regulated power under micro-grid. (c) For providing smooth transients between islanding and grid-connected modes and (4) finally, this controller also concentrates on reduction of distortions/harmonics in proposed system which is caused by heavily non-linear loading conditions. The performance of this system is verified by using Matlab/simulink tool box.
KEY WORD: ...
High Frequency and Multi Level Inverter using HM Technique for Fuel Cell Drives
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0501042047
A hybrid modulation technique consisting of single-reference six pulse modulation (SRSPM) for front end dc/dc converter and 33% modulation to the three-phase inverter. Applying proposed SRSPM to control front-end dc/dc converter, high frequency (HF) pulsating dc voltage waveform is produced, that is equivalent to six-pulse output at 6× line frequency (rectified 6-pulse output of balanced three-phase ac waveforms) once averaged. It reduces the control complexity owing to single-reference three-phase modulation as compared to conventional three-reference three-phase SPWM. Also it eliminates the necessity of dc-link capacitor which reduces the cost and volume. Eliminating dc link capacitor helps in retaining the modulated information at the input of the three-phase inverter. It requires only 33% (one third) modulation of the inverter devices to produce balanced three-phase voltage waveforms resulting in significant saving in (at least 66%) switching losses of inverter semiconductor devices. At any instant of line cycle, only two switches are required to switch at HF and remaining switches retain their unique state of either ON or OFF. At the same time inverter devices are not commutated when the current through them is at its peak value. Drop in switching loss is very high in comparison with a standard voltage source inverter (VSI) employing standard three-phase sinusoidal pulse width modulation. This proposed work explains operation and analysis of the HF two-stage inverter modulated by the proposed modulation scheme. MATLAB 220.127.116.115 software is used for the analysis of the system.
KEY WORD: Electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, high frequency, six-pulse modulation, three-phase inverter.