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Volume 4 ~ Issue 4 (April 2014)
Exact solutions of N-dimensional Bianchi Type-V space-time in f (R) theory of gravity
Paper Index :: :07.4721/0440109
In the present paper, we have obtained two exact vacuum solutions of the field equations in f (R)
theory of gravity in N-dimensional Bianchi type-V space time which is the generalization of the work of M.
Sharif and M. Farasat Shamir (2009) in 4 V and our earlier work V 5 ( ) 6 V too. The first vacuum solution is
singular and second one is non-singular for r 0 and r 0 respectively. The value of f (R) is also evaluated
for both the solutions. Some physical properties of these solutions have been studied. It is interesting to note that
all the work in 4 V and 5 V ( ) 6 V can be reproduced by reducing the dimensions
Key words: f (R) theory of gravity, N-dimensional Bianchi type-I space-time, N- dimensional vacuum field
equations in f (R) theory of gravity
Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Zinc Sulfide in Sulfidic- Anoxic Conditions II. The role of solution composition and Ageing
Paper Index :: :07.4721/044010019
This study investigates Hg(II) removal onto binary mixed mineral sorbents from simulated mercury contaminated water, in zinc sulfide related sulfidic-anoxic condition. The sorbents used were zinc sulfide, kaolinite, montmorillonite, goethite, and their mixtures. Batch mode studies at room temperature demonstrate a linear increase in mercury sorption with increase in pH up to pH 4, gradually flattening for the rest of pH investigated. Increase in Cp-particle concentration does not reveal a corresponding increase in sorption of mercury. Except for zinc sulfide, kaolinite and montmorillonite, increase in residence time could not lead to a corresponding increase in mercury removal. The complex behavior of mineral-mercury interaction under sulfidic-anoxic condition may be attributed to increased hydroxylation of the mineral surface and the presence of thiol (≡S-H) and hydroxyl (≡Me-OH) functional groups and reactive sites on surface of metal sulfides
Keywords:mercury, mixed mineral systems, particle concentration, residence time, sulfidic-anoxic, zinc sulfide.
The Finite Element Analysis & Improvement on a Single Cylinder Head of Spark Ignition Engine
Paper Index :: :07.4721/044020026
The finite element method is applied to find the stresses field from the parts of a single cylinder head of a spark ignition engine. There are thus identified the most stressed component elements and respective regions. This paper aims to study the stresses on an engine cylinder head spark ignition, which is known constructive characteristics and the thermal parameters. The paper deals with thermal & structural stress analysis and improvement of the cylinder head assembly of SI (Spark Ignition) engine. A detailed FE model was created for this purpose. The FE model consists of main parts of the cylinder head assembly and it includes a description of thermal and mechanical loads and contact interaction between its parts. The model considers a temperature dependency of a thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient on wall temperature. The paper presents a comparison of computed and measured temperature. The design was carried out using the SolidWorks v12 and analysis was carried out using the FE program ANSYS v14.
Key words—Actual process, Cylinder Head, Deformation Spark Ignition Engine, Temperature, Finite element, Stresses, mesh.
Mercury Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Mixed Mineral Systems Injected with Zinc Sulfide Under Sulfidic- Anoxic Conditions 1: Reactivity and Removal Kinetics
Paper Index :: :07.4721/044027038
This study investigates the reactivity and removal kinetics of mercury on mixed mineral systems from aqueous solution related to contaminated waters. The sorbents used were zinc sulfide, kaolinite, montmorillonite, goethite, and their mixtures. Batch mode studies at room temperature (23 ± 2 ◦C). Reactivity studies demonstrate high level of protonation by some of the mineral systems during the sorption process. The complex behaviors of the mixed mineral systems in mercury sorption suggest that different reactive sites inclusive thiol (≡S-H) and hydroxyl (≡Me-OH) functional groups are involved at the onset of sorption, with reactions and sorption ending with inner-sphere complexation. Increase in contact time during mercury-mineral system interaction could help increase mercury removal by some mixed mineral systems.
Keywords: Zinc sulfide, mercury, sulfidic-anoxic, proton coefficient, mass transfer rate, mixed mineral systems.
Design Approach To High Voltage High Power Steam-turbine driven Alternator
Paper Index :: :07.4721/044039044
Abstract-The paper deals with the design methodology of high voltage high power alternators driven by steam turbines. These alternators run at a high speed of 3000 rpm in most part of the world (at 3600 rpm in USA) and are of cylindrical pole construction. The design procedure suggested in the text-books of design does not well-suit for large alternators of modern time. Modern high power alternators are designed with a low value of SCR to reduce the size, inertia and cost of the rotor. The diameter is limited by the consideration of centrifugal stresses. The no of stator slots is determined by the no. of turns. The ventilating circuit has to be designed for hydrogen as coolant and in addition with water flowing through hollow conductors, if required. The data for the design variables and the design constraints are quite different from those for small power ratings. The materials to be chosen must be of very high quality. The computer programme has been chalked out and the case-study has been conducted keeping all these points in view.
Keywords:Cylindrical pole, synchronous generator, high voltage, centrifugal force, design variables and constraints
Digital Image Technique using Gabor Filter and SVM in Heterogeneous Face Recognition
Paper Index :: :07.4721/044045052
The main reason for the decrease in changes in appearance of the user is due to the factors such as ageing, beard growth, sun tan. Heterogeneous face recognition involves matching two face images from alternate imaging aesthetic forms, such as an infrared image to a photograph or a sketch to a photograph. A generic HFR framework is proposed in which both probe and gallery images are represented in terms of nonlinear similarities to a collection of prototype face images. The prototype subjects have an image in each modality (probe and gallery), and the similarity between an image and prototype images are measured. The features of this nonlinear prototype are projected into a linear discriminant subspace which increases the accuracy of this nonlinear prototype representation. In HFR framework we introduce Random sampling to control the small sample size problem which arises as a challenge. The excellence of the proposed approach is demonstrated in the experiment result as prototype random subspace. Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of Face Recognition Systems (FRSs) decreases with the time elapsed between enrollments and testing. So we have proposed Gabor filter along with SVM for Feature Extraction and Robustness.
KEY WORDS— nonlinear similarity, local descriptors, ambiences, Random subspaces, Mugshot, infrared image, discriminant analysis, sketches, SVM, Gabor Filter.
Turing Machine and the Conceptual Problems of Computational Theory
Paper Index :: :07.4721/044053060
As computer hardware and software continue to develop at an ever increasing rate, one will be forced to believe that no problem is too hard for a computer to solve. Given enough memory, time, and ingenuity on the part of the programmer, one will think that there is no problem too difficult for the computer to solve. Yet there are many problems inherently unsolvable by a computer. There are problems for which, if a program were to exist, whether or not there was a machine big enough and fast enough to actually perform it, a logical contradiction would result. In this paper, we discuss Turing machines and the conceptual problems of computational Theory. The paper argues that there are some set of problems that cannot be computed by Turing machine and these set of problems are called uncomputable sets and functions. Examples of such sets and functions were provided. The paper also discuss how we can simulate one Turing machine to another Turing machine which of course can act as a universal Turing machine that can be used to solve all computable problems. A proof of the theorem was proposed.
KEYWORDS: Turing machine, computation, computational theory, computability, computer simulation