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Volume 4 ~ Issue 2 (February 2014)
Performance of Pilot Tone Based OFDM: A Survey
Paper Index :: :07.4721/0420105
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is a multi-carrier technique with high spectral efficiency. But they experience a high 'peak to average power ratio' (PAPR) which increases the power consumption by the transmitter. A Pilot tone in OFDM significantly lowers the BER which shows the quality of the signal transmitted. The impact of the position of the pilot carrier is more on the mean square error (MSE) of the system and hence the performance of the system relies indirectly upon the pilots, and hence optimization of the pilots and their positions is a necessary step. The 'maximum distance distribution method' of pilot carriers which considers the ratio between the total number of subcarriers and total number of pilot subcarriers proves to be a non-significant method as it doesn't minimize the MSE of the channel estimation. Therefore an optimal process is the need of the hour to approach this problem. In this paper we have given an overview of different pilot insertion schemes such as Branch and bound algorithm, Hill climbing algorithm, Differential evolution algorithm and Modified pilot carrier insertion schemes, as well as channel estimation methods for each of the above algorithms have been compared in this context.
INDEX TERMS: BER, Channel estimation method, minimize MSE, modified pilot carrier insertion schemes, optimization of the pilots
Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Groundwater In Makuyu Division, Maragua District
Paper Index :: :07.4721/04206015
Analytical results have shown that the borehole and well water in Makuyu Division in Maragua District in central Kenya is not polluted and can be consumed readily. The level of the various parameters is low compared to recommended limits. The chemical properties monitoring showed no significant heavy metal pollution in groundwater. The heavy metal concentrations values ranges from 0.0994 – 101450 mg/l for iron, 0.0046 – 1.0190 mg/l for manganese, 0 – 0.0588 mg/l for titanium, 0.0011 – 0.0142 mg/l for copper, 0.0027 – 0.1692 mg/l for zinc, 0.0011 – 0.0016 mg/l for strontium, 0.0012 – 0.0043 mg/l for yttrium and 0.0013 – 0.0043 mg/l for zirconium. The concentration of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, selenium, titanium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium were determined in filtered water after pre-concentration with ammonium pyrolidine dithiocarbonate APDC using X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA). The values obtained showed no significant heavy metals pollution in groundwater. The trace metal concentrations in filtered water were below the maximum permissible limits for drinking water as given by the World Health Organization (1993). It is only in Kamahuha Girls High School borehole where the concentration of iron and manganese were above the WHO standards. The XRFA technique was found to be a fast, precise, accurate and reliable method of water analysis. Recent studies have indicated that toxicity of metals such as copper and zinc is primarily due to the presence of the free metal iron and thus may not be directly related to the total metal concentration (Shepherd, B K et al. 1980).
Review of Municipal Solid Waste Management: A Case Study of Nairobi, Kenya
Paper Index :: :07.4721/04216020
Solid waste management (SWM) is a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing countries. Nairobi's solid waste situation, which could be taken to generally represent Kenya's status, is largely characterized by low coverage of solid waste collection, pollution from uncontrolled dumping of waste, inefficient public services, unregulated and uncoordinated private sector and lack of key solid waste management infrastructure. Solid waste generated on daily basis is 4,016 tonnes as predicted by Allison (2010). The collection rate is as low as 33% (JICA, 2010) which leaves about 2,690 tonnes uncollected (almost equal to the total daily waste generation as predicted by JICA (1998)). Apart from Nairobi City Council (NCC), the body that has the primary responsibility for the provision and regulation of SWM services in the city, other actors have come into play such as private companies and community based organizations among others. The models of operation of these actors are not well understood. Effective coordination among these actors is also absent and regulation of the private companies by the city council is only beginning to emerge. According to Mwangi, 2007, analysis of total costs incurred by various actors and amount of waste collected per month showed that CBOs had the least fixed cost of operation as compared to private companies. Further, the CBOs had the lowest cost per tonne of waste collected as compared to other operators who showed almost twice this amount. These suggest that solid waste management is very expensive and CBOs are the cheapest operators of solid waste. Therefore, CBOs should be left as the waste operators in the low income areas where the residents are unable to pay a lot of money for waste management due to their low operating costs. Due to their relatively high operation costs, the private companies are more suited to operate in the high income areas and CBD where the residents or the owners of building are able to afford for the services. However, private enterprises are primarily interested in earning a return on their investment and may not be efficient due to the complexity of their operations outlay especially when proper coordination and SWM models are lacking.
KEY WORDS: Actors, Efficiency, Models and Solid Waste Management
The Kinship Analysis of 10 Corn (Zea Mays L.) Populations through Morphological Characteristics in the City of Tidore Islands North Mollucas Province
Paper Index :: :07.4721/042021027
The existence of corns is one of the major commodity crops in Indonesia in terms of aspects of the exploitation and utilization of the products, namely both as food and feed. The opportunities for corn development in the North Mollucas Province to support national food security are prospective as it is supported by the availability of extensive dry land as well as the technology. This study aims to determine the differences in the characters of morphology, similarity index value and clusters (groups) formed in 10 populations of corns (Zea mays L.) in Tidore Islands of North Mollucas Province. The data were collected through descriptions technique, phylogeny analysis to 10 corn populations based on the morphological characters, both generative and vegetative organs. Based on the results of a study to the 10 corn populations, it was found a number of characters from a population of 49 character traits of the general and special corn plants. This shows that the morphological characters of the observed corns that some of which are highly related in terms of their fenotips. In terms of the cluster similarity (group) populations (3, 4, and 8), those corn plants have high similarity, so it is hard to be differenciated in the level of similarity. The cluster population that has very high similarity index values are those in the population (3, 4, and 8) with the similarity index value of = 87.21 % obtained from the Tadupi, Lola, and Koli villages; this population similarity index values is approaching 100 %. Based on the analysis of the dendogram, it was obtained the widest similarity in cluster population 2 derived from Yehu village. The similarity index value of this population group is very low, amounting to = 61.17 %.
KEY WORDS:kinship, corn population, morphological characters, Tidore Islands
Development of Alluvial Fans and Associated Land Use Problems of Himalayan Foot Hills, West Bengal
Paper Index :: :07.4721/042028035
The present paper embodies some observations and distinct findings about the Development Of Alluvial Fans And Associated Land Use Problems Of Himalayan Foot Hills,Werst Bengal.The study area give an ample scope for studying the evaluation and developmental striates of alluvial fans being originated by fluvial action.The present worker have taken 1000km2 area, demarcated by Tista nd Jaldhaka including no. of rivers,streams. Actually a mountain stream debouching out onto a flat,gentle gradient deposits its load building the alluvial fans. Fan development is are result of complex interaction of climate and tectonism being influenced by open hydrological system.According to Bull(1964) fan materials are classified by Mud flow, Braided stream flow and stream channel flow among which stream channel flow is responsible for the development of alluvial fans over this area.This fan areas are also marked by variabilities of land use mainly agriculture is well developed over the fertile alluvial deposits on which soil layers have prominently developed. The gentle sloped cultivated plots are mainly suffered by proper irrigation, mainly in rabi season. The EW demarcating zone of 250m contour line between Bhabar and Khadar ,due to the presence of HFF water is percolated and in the downstream area they are come out as capillary action. side this reason the soil character is also responsible. So proper land use management and well irrigation system is needed for agriculture.
KEY WORDS: Alluvial fan development, problems of land use and related mitigation
Effect of Hammer Weight on Physical Properties of Brick Aggregates
Paper Index :: :07.4721/042036039
Reinforced concrete structure is the most common type of structure found elsewhere in the developing country. Coarse aggregate is one of the major components for this type of structures. Though stone chips are used to achieve higher concrete strength but brick chips are used widely to save the cost of construction. Most of the cases, brick chips are prepared by breaking full size bricks with different types of hammer. Impact load due to hammer has a significant effect on coarse aggregate size. In this research this impact load has been calculated to understand the loss of particle.
Data Hiding Scheme in Digital Image using Steganographic Techniques
Paper Index :: :07.4721/04204046
Steganography is hiding the secret data into a cover object to protect it from unauthorized access. It is a technique of invisible communication which hides the existence of the message. If the cover object used is an image, the steganography is known as image steganography. It has many applications like Online transactions, military communication etc. In this paper we are discussing Existing important image steganography techniques like Least Significant Bit (LSB), Pixel Value Differencing (PVD), and Modified Kekre Algorithm (MKA) etc.
Keywords: Steganography, digital image, LSB, cover- image, stego-image, Peak Signal to Noise ratio, Mean Square Error.