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Vol ||2|| Issue || 09 ||


1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22059
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Improvement in the Design of Engine Crane for Modern Industries
Country :: Tarkwa, Ghana
Authors :: Adzimah Stephen Kwasi || Akinwonmi Ademola Samuel || Bentum-Mensah Benedict
Pages No. :: 01-09
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0290109
Full PDF ::
Abstract

This paper presents an improvement in the design of engine crane, introducing a rotating mechanism comprising a gearing system, electric motor, solid shaft with flange, sleeve bearing, and a support bearing. The precision cut gears used are made of steel with endurance strength of 55 MN/m2 (according to the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA). In the design, the limiting endurance load of 17.06 KN and the limiting wear load of 22.96 KN are greater than dynamic load of 10.83 KN which implies the design is satisfactory from the standpoint of wear, dynamic and endurance loads. Since the use of cranes is indispensable in the industry, the design will aid productivity, safety of workers, ergonomics, efficiency, effectiveness and versatility of the cranes, for which they are designed and manufactured.

Key words: design, dynamic load, engine crane, limiting endurance, rotating mechanism.

Reference
[1] Hamrock J. Bernard, Schmid R. Steven, Jacobson O. (2003), "Fundamentals of machine element",2nd Edition. McGraw Hill. New York. pp 726 – 729.
[2] Khurmi, R.S. (2009) "A Textbook on Engineering Mechanics" S. Chand and Company Ltd, Ram Nager, New Delhi 20th Revised Edition, pg171. ISBN 8121926165.
[3] Larry Lam, (2007) "Crane Accidents and Emergencies –Causes, Repairs, and Prevention" Presented at TOC ASIA 2007 Hong Kong
[4] Leonardo Spiegel, P.E and George F. Limbrunner, P.E (1995) "Applied Static and Strength of Materials" Prentice Hall, 2nd edition, 754pp. ISBN 0-02-414961-6.
[5] Raymond, A. Higgins (1990), "Properties of Engineering Materials" 4th Edition, Edward Arnold pp 348 ISBN 0340380349.
[6] Ryder G.H., (1969) "Strength of Materials",3rd Edition, Rajiv Beri, New Delhi. pp131.

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22060
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Automobile Gearbox Holding Device during Maintenance
Country :: Tarkwa, Ghana
Authors :: Adzimah, Stephen Kwasi || Akinwonmi, Ademola Samuel || Oswell, Paintsil
Pages No. :: 10-16
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/029010016
Full PDF ::
Abstract
The method used by the technical teams during repairs on gearboxes of automobile always poses danger, the faulty gearbox, at a stage, has to be removed and some components restored or completely replaced. This technique has always been causing fatigue and much risk of worker injury; endangering the lives of mechanics. This paper presents the design of an efficient, reliable, ergonomic, safe and cost-effective device to hold the automobile gearbox in position during its maintenance. The main components of the design include gearbox, support plate, power screw, link and spur gears. The mechanism in the design causes the reciprocating movement of the support plate when the power screw connecting the two brackets performs rotational motion. The base in the form of a board with wheels makes easy the drawing and pushing of the device with the gearbox on it. Mild steel was used as the material. The efficiency of the device is good enough to be used for the purpose for which it is designed. The device will save time, minimize and eliminate wasted efforts, risks and dangers involved in holding gearboxes of automobile during maintenance workshops.

Keywords –automobile, design, device, gearboxes, mechanism
Reference
[1] Budynas, G. R. and Nisbett, K. J. (2011), Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, 9th edition, 1109 pp.
[2] Callister, W. D. and Rethwisch, D. G. (2010), Materials Science And Engineering, an Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, 8th edition, 88pp.
[3] Karmot, (2011), Automobile Maintenance Accessories Handbook, 24th ed., Karmot Inc., Peoria, USA, pp. 4–97.
[4] Khurmi, R.S. (2009) A Textbook on Engineering Mechanics S. Chand and Company Ltd, Ram Nager, New Delhi 20th Revised Edition, pg171. ISBN 8121926165.
[5] Khurmi, R.S. and Gupta, J.K. (2005), Machine Design, Eurasia Publishing House (PVT.) Ltd, Ram Nagar, New Delhi, 1230 pp.
[6] Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998. Safe use of work equipment.. Approved Code of Practice and guidance L22 (Third edition) HSE Books ISBN 978 0 7176 6295 1
[7] Raymond, A. Higgins (1990), Properties of Engineering Materials 4th Edition, Edward Arnold pp 348 ISBN 0340380349.

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23134
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Therapeutic Effects of Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Rat Liver Cancer
Country :: Egypt
Authors :: S.O. Emara ||S.M. EL- Kholy ||A. H. Kazem || N.A. Hussein ||R.S. Shams Al-dein
Pages No. :: 17-18
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/029017018
Full PDF ::
Abstract
The attempts made to treat invasive liver cancer have failed so far at an alarming rate. One effective strategy used recently is low frequency pulsed magnetic field therapy. Coil A of intensity 13-42 gauss; 2-3 Hz and Coil B of 0.6 Tesla <1 Hz were evaluated on diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver cancer. Furthermore, an exposure system was designed to provide a safe, selective and a noninvasive therapeutic device designed according to the international safety standards of therapeutic devices. The histopathology and ultra-structure of liver tissues suggest a selective anticancer activity of these magnetic fields through incorporating three main strategies. These strategies consist of apoptosis, necrosis and the inflammatory infiltration of the malignant carcinoma. These results simulate the gene therapy and immunogenic therapy of liver cancer. Finally, it can be concluded that the exposure system coil A of 3 Hz and coil B 0.9 Hz will contribute to magnetic therapy.


Keywords –Diethylnitrosamine, Liver cancer, Low frequency pulsed magnetic field therapy.
Reference

[1] Chang H, Li G, Pan Y, 1985, Experimental observation on the effect of magnetic field on S-180 sarcomas in mice, Chinese Journal of Physics Medicine, Vol.7, No. 3, pp. 169–170.
[2] Chang H, Li G, Wang G, Primary report of 18 cases on magnetic field therapy for malignant tumor, in Biomedical Physics Study, Wuhan: Wuhan University Press 1990, 74–75.
[3] Zhang X, Zhang H, Zheng C , Li C, Zhang X , Xiong W, Extremely low frequency (ELF) pulsed-gradient magnetic fields inhibit malignant tumour growth at different biological levels, Cell Biology International, 26 (7), 2002, 599– 603.
[4] Tatarov I, Panda A, Petkov D, Kolappaswamy K, Thompson K, Kavirayani A, Lipsky MM, Elson E, Davis CC, Martin SS, DeTolla LJ, Effect of magnetic fields on tumor growth and viability.Comp Med., 61(4), 2011, 339-345.
[5] Shiota G, Harada K, Ishida M, Tomie Y, Okubo M, Katayama S, Ito H, Kawasaki H, Inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma by glycyrrhizin in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice, Carcinogenesis, 20(1), 1999, 59- 63.


4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23119
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: ON SOME ASPECTS OF u -IDEALS DETERMINED BY e 1 AND c,0
Country :: Kenya
Authors :: John Wanyonyi Matuya || Achiles Simiyu || Shem aywa
Pages No. :: 19-23
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/029019023
Full PDF ::
Abstract
The M -ideals defined on a real Banach space are called u -ideals. The u -ideals containing
isomorphic copies of 1
 are not strict u -ideals. In this paper we show that u -ideals with unconditional
basis   n x which is shrinking has no isomorphic copy of 1

and thus a strict u -ideal. Finally we show that
u -ideals with unconditional basis   n x which is boundedly complete is not homeomorphic to copies of 0 c
implying that they are weak

closed in their biduals X
 
.

Keywordsu -ideals, strict u -ideals, Shrinking, boundedly complete
Reference

[1] Diestel. J. " Sequences and Series in Banach spaces''. Springer-Verlag Newyork , 1984.
[2] Godefrey, G. Kalton, J. and Saphar,P. " Unconditional ideals in Banach spaces '' .studia
Mathematica.104 No.1,(1993) 13-59.
[3] Lima, V. Lima, A. " Strict u -ideals in Banach spaces ''.studia
Math.3 No.195 (2009) 275-285.
[4] Matuya . J. W. et al "On characterization of u -ideals determined by sequences'' A.J.
Curr.Eng and Math.1( 2012) 247-250.


5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23108
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: The Deficient C1 Quartic Spline Interpolation
Country :: India
Authors :: Y.P.Dubey ||Anil Shukla
Pages No. :: 24-30
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/029024030
Full PDF ::
Abstract
In this paper we have obtained the best error bounds for deficient Quartic Spline interpolation matching the given functional value at mid points and its derivative with two interior points with boundary condition.


Keywords : Error Bounds, Deficient, Quartic Spline, Interpolation, best error.
Reference

[1] Carl Deborr, A Practical Guide to Springer Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 27, Spoinger - Verlag, New York, 1979.
[2] C.A. Hall and W.W. Meyer, J. Approx.theory 16(1976), 105-22.
[3] Dubean and J. Savoier. Explicit Error bounds for spline interpolation on a uniform partition, J. approx. theorem 82 (1995), 1-14.
[4] Gary Howell and A.K. Verma, Best error bounds for quartic spline interpolation, J. Approx. theory 58 (1989), 58-67.
[5] K.A. Kopotun, Univairate Splines equivalence of moduli of smoothness and application, Mathematics of Computation, 76
(2007), 930-946.
[6] K. Marken and M. Raimer's. An unconditionally convergents method for compecting zero's of splines and polynomials,
Mathematics of Computation 76 (2007), 845-866.
[7] P.J. Davis, Interpolation and Approximation Blaisedell New York, 1961.
[8] 8 S.S. Rana and Y.P. Dubey, Best error bounds of deficient quartic spline interpolation. Indian, J. Pur.Appl.Maths; 30
(1999), 385-393.
[9] S.S. Rana, Y.P. Dubey and P. Gupta. Best error bounds of Deficient c' quartic spline interpolation International Journal of App.
Mathematical Analysis and Application Jan.-Jun 2011 Vol. No. 1, pp. 169-177.
[10] S.S. Rana and Y.P. Dubey, Local Behaviour of the deficient discrete cubic spline Interpolation, J. Approx. theory 86(1996), 120- 127.


6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22075
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Study of Parameters Which Affect the Strength of Concrete by External Prestressing
Country :: India
Authors :: Prof. Yogesh Ravindra Suryawanshi || Ms. Manisha Bhise
Pages No. :: 31-36
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/029031036
Full PDF ::
Abstract
The normal interaction between steel and concrete is lost because the tendons are unbonded with the concrete cross section. Therefore the assumption of plane sections is no longer valid. External pre-stressing has been proven cost effective and technically attractive worldwide, as it leads to substantial cost savings and a large decrease in construction time. If the purpose of the project is to improve the load carrying capacity of existing bridges, then tendons are usually, placed outside the bridge girders, tensioned and anchored at their ends. The external tendons can be made of steel, but also with fibre reinforced polymeric (FRP) materials and they provide one of the most efficient solutions to increase the rating capacity of existing bridges when the infrastructures are in need of renewal and made of all structural materials, such as concrete, steel and timber. There are some different techniques to strengthen existing structures such as plate bonding, external pre-stressing, over-slabbing or increasing the ratio of bonded reinforcement. Recent works on structural repair procedures have shown that reinforced concrete beams can retain as much as 85% of their flexural capacity. While there are similarities between external pre-stressing and external reinforcement, the structural principles in which the two methods work are different. In present paper work, we are made only study different researchers works on different parameters which are affected on externally prestressing. We were collected the information on external prestressing from different research papers and made discussion on parameters which are affected on it.
Reference

[1] King Hwee& Robert A.Tajendra., "Strengthening of precast concrete girder bridges by post tensioning for continuity"PCI Journal ,2003,vol.2.p.p 10-15.
[2] Amer M. Ibrahim ., "Parametric Study of Continuous Concrete Beam Prestressed with External Tendon Jordan"Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 4, No. 3, 2010.
[3]Nihal Don Ariyawarddena And Admin Gali., "Design Of Precast Prestressed Concrete Member Using External Prestressing"PCI Journal ,2002,vol.5.p.p 84-94.
Conferences Papers:
[4] Olivier Burdet& Mark Bodoux.,"Comparison of internal and external Prestressing for typical highway bridge"16th conference of "IABSE''Lucrane 2000.
[5] Huang Jian1 & Xia Wengjun.,"Use of external cfrp prestressing in hewei bridge in china"Proceedings of the 26th Southern African Transport Conference (SATC 2007).
[6] Hroshimutsuyoshi., "Prestrssed Concrete Bridges In Japan : Technological Advancements And Future Prospects"the 3rd ACF international conference-ACF/VCA 2008.


7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21027
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: A Block Cipher Involving a Key Matrix and a Key bunch Matrix, Supplemented with Mix
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr. V.U.K.Sastry || K. Shirisha
Pages No. :: 37-43
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/029037043
Full PDF ::
Abstract
In this paper, we have developed a block cipher, which includes a key matrix and a key bunch matrix. In this, we have used the basic concepts of Hill cipher and the concept of the multiplicative inverse. This analysis is supplemented with a function, called Mix(), for creating confusion. The cryptanalysis carried out in this investigation firmly indicates that this cipher is unbreakable by all possible attacks, available in the literature.


Keywords: avalanche effect, cryptanalysis, decryption, encryption, key bunch matrix, key matrix.
Reference

[1] Lester Hill, (1929), "Cryptography in an algebraic alphabet", (V.36 (6), pp. 306-312.), American Mathematical Monthly.
[2] William Stallings: Cryptography and Network Security: Principle and Practices", Third Edition 2003, Chapter 2, pp. 29.
[3] V. U. K. Sastry, S. Udaya Kumar, and A. Vinay Babu, "A large Block Cipher using Modular Arithmetic Inverse of a Key Matrix and mixing of the Key Matrix and the Plaintext", Journal of Computer Science, 2(9), 2006, New York, pp. 690-697.
[4] S. Udaya Kumar, V. U. K. Sastry and A. Vinay Babu, "An iterative Process Involving Interlacing and Decomposition in the Development of a block Cipher", International journal of Computer Science and Network Security, vol. 6, No. 10, October 2006, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 236-245.
[5] P10V. U. K. Sastry, V. Janaki, "On the modular arithmetic Inverse in the cryptology of Hill Cipher", Proceedings of North American Technology and Business Conference, September 2005, Canada.
[6] V. U. K. Sastry, N. Ravi Shankar, "Modified Hill Cipher with Interlacing and Iteration ", Journal of Computer Science, Science Publications, 3(11):854-859, 2007.
[7] V. U. K. Sastry, N. Ravi Shankar, "Modified Hill Cipher for a large block of plaintext with Interlacing and Iteration", Journal of Computer Science, Science Publications, 4(1):15-20, 2008.
[8] V. U. K. Sastry, Prof. D.S.R. Murthy, Dr. S. Durga Bhavani, "A Block Cipher Invloving a Key Applied on both sides of the plaintext", International Journal of Computer and Network Security (IJCNS), Vol. 1, No.1, pp. 27-30, Oct 2009.
[9] V.U.K.Sastry, Aruna Varanasi, " A Modified Hill Cipher Involving Permutation, Iteration and the Key in a Specified Position"(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security, Vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 157-162, October 2010.
[10] V.U.K.Sastry, Aruna Varanasi, S.Udaya Kumar, "A Modern Hill Cipher Involving a Permuted Key and Modular Arithmetic Addition Operation", International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science Vol.2 No.1,pp.162-165, Jan-Feb 2011.
[11] Dr. V.U.K. Sastry, K.Shirisha, "A Novel Block Cipher Involving a Key Bunch Matrix", in International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 55– No.16, Oct 2012, Foundation of Computer Science, NewYork, pp. 1-6.
[12] Dr. V.U.K. Sastry, K.Shirisha, "A Block Cipher Involving a Key Bunch Matrix and Including Another Key Matrix Supplemented with Xor Operation ", in International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 55– No.16, Oct 2012, Foundation of Computer Science, NewYork, pp.7-10.


8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23107
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Credit Card Duplication and Crime Prevention Using Biometrics
Country :: India
Authors :: Prithika.M || P.Rajalakshmi
Pages No. :: 44-50
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/029044050
Full PDF ::
Abstract
A phenomenal growth in the number of credit card transactions, especially for on-line purchases, has also led to a substantial rise in fraudulent activities. Credit card fraudulent transactions are very easy to conduct, while very difficult to recover, compared to the fraud cases in hard-products transactions. In real life, fraudulent transactions could be interspersed with genuine transactions and simple pattern matching techniques are not often sufficient to detect the fraudulent transactions efficiently. Moreover, surrogate representations of identity can be easily forgotten, lost, guessed, stolen, or shared. Further it can be hacked through malicious websites or prone to security breaches. Implementation of efficient fraud detection systems has thus become imperative for all credit card companies in order to minimize their losses.In this paper, we propose a IRPV (Iris Recognition and Palm Vein) recognition technology which will help add even more security to existing biometric devices that may be susceptible to fraud. The techniques used are Palm vein technology, along with iris recognition. It is difficult to crack, because each person's vein pattern is unique. Thus, biometric systems impart higher levels of security when appropriately integrated into applications requiring user authentication. The experimental results show that the detection rate would prove 99.995% compared to traditional methods.


Keywords: Biometrics, Credit Card Fraud, ICP Algorithm, Iris Recognition, Palm Vein technology.
Reference

[1] Benson Edwin Raj, S.; Portia, A.A.; , "Analysis on credit card fraud detection methods,"Computer, Communication and Electrical Technology (ICCCET), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.152-156, 18-19 March 2011
[2] Murdoch, Steven J.; Drimer, Saar; Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike; , "Chip and PIN is Broken," Security and Privacy (SP), 2010 IEEE Symposium on , vol., no., pp.433-446, 16-19 May 2010
[3] Nasir, M.H.N.; Hamid, S.; Hassan, H.; , "Thread-Level Parallelism & Shared-Memory Pool Techniques for Authorization of Credit Card System," Communications and Information Technologies, 2008. ISCIT 2008. International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.447-452, 21-23 Oct. 2008
[4] Xiangqian Wu; Enying Gao; Youbao Tang; Kuanquan Wang; , "A Novel Biometric System Based on Hand Vein," Frontier of Computer Science and Technology (FCST), 2010 Fifth International Conference on , vol., no., pp.522-526, 18-22 Aug. 2010
[5] Shitu Luo; Yanling Wang; Yin Liu; Xiaopin Hu; , "Research on geomagnetic-matching technology based on improved ICP algorithm," Information and Automation, 2008. ICIA 2008. International Conference on , vol., no., pp.815-819, 20-23 June 2008
[6] Nguyen, M.H.; Ho, D.N.; Luu, D.H.; Moldovyan, A.A.; Moldovyan, N.A.; , "On functionality extension of the digital signature standards," Advanced Technologies for Communications (ATC), 2011 International Conference on , vol., no., pp.6-9, 2-4 Aug. 2011
[7] Zuguang Xuan; Zhenjun Du; Rong Chen; , "Comparison Research on Digital Signature Algorithms in Mobile Web Services," Management and Service Science, 2009. MASS '09. International Conference on , vol., no., pp.1-4, 20-22 Sept. 2009 doi: 10.1109/ICMSS.2009.
[8] "Statistics for General and On-Line Card Fraud," http://www.epaynews.com/statistics/fraud.html , Mar. 2007.
[9] S. Ghosh and D.L. Reilly, "Credit Card Fraud Detection with a Neural-Network," Proc. 27th Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences: Information Systems: Decision Support and Knowledge-Based Systems,vol. 3, pp. 621-630, 1994.
[10] M. Syeda, Y.Q. Zhang, and Y. Pan, "Parallel Granular Networks for Fast Credit Card Fraud Detection," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Fuzzy Systems, pp. 572-577, 2002.
[11] Organism Information Visualization Technology Editing Committee Edition: Organism Information Visualization Technology. (in Japanese), Corona Publication Co., Ltd., p.235 (1997).
[12] The Federation of Bankers Associations of Japan: Statistics from the Questionnaire on the Number of Withdrawals and the Amount of Money Withdrawn Using Stolen Passbooks. http://www.zenginkyo.or.jp/en/news/index.html

9.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23124
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Local Potential Intensification System (SIPLO) the Sustainable Management of Soil Organic Potatoes
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Sugiarto ||Rudi Sulistiono || Sudiarso || Soemarno
Pages No. :: 51-57
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/029051057
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Farm management system leads to intensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides overdose, apparently a serious impact on the decline in land productivity and degradation of agro-ecosystems. Management of organic potato farms Local Potential Intensification System aims to improve the potential of local resources and increase the fertility of the land to be utilized in a sustainable manner. The research method; the study took place in Batu, Malang and retrieval of data is done by survey. Respondents are experienced potato farmers and revered as the expert. Analysis of data using Strategic Analysis (SWOT) and Analitycal Hierarchy Process (AHP), [23](Saaty, 1993). The determination of criteria and sub-criteria approach SIPLO do pairwise comparison method in the AHP, the results of the analysis can be defined hierarchy of priority criteria and sub-criteria for testing linkage SIPLO and SWOT analysis on the value of the relationship vision, mission and values that influence the management of potato farms [24] (Akdon, 2009). The result, a policy strategy that must be addressed: (1). Introduction SIPLO profile strategic priority value 12, (2). Socialization, training and make a pilot strategic priority value 12, (3). Establish partnership with educators and the government or the competent strategic priority value 12. Conclusion; the strategy of sustainable land management and land productivity potatoes can be increased and the state of agro-ecosystems can be repaired, it is necessary to: (1). Implementation SIPLO on organic potato farms. (2). In engineering applications SIPLO the time of induction of land must be in wet or flooded. (3). To increase productivity and improvement of the agro land at land management should be given an appropriate organic fertilizer type, maturity and recommended doses of fertilizer. (4). Organic fertilizer should be given to speed up the process of bacterial decomposition of soil organic matter mineralization.


Keywords: SIPLO, Induction, bacteria
Reference

[1] N. Suthamathy, and T.H. Seran, Residual effect of organic manure EM bokashi applied to proceeding crop of vegetable cowpea (vigna unguiculata) on succeeding crop of radish (raphanus sativus) department of crop science, Faculty of Agriculture, Eastern University, Chenkalady, SRI LANKA Available online at: www.isca.in. International Science Congress Association, Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences ,1(1), 2013.
[2] P. Kristiansen, A.M. Taji, J. Reganold, Organic agriculture. A Global Perspective. (Published exclusively in Australia and New Zealand), (by CABI Publishing, a Division of CAB International, 2006).
[3] G.P. Robertson, P.M. Vitousek, Nitrogen in agriculture: Balancing the cost of an essential resource, Ann. Rev. Environ. Journal Resour,34, 2009, 97–125.
[4] I. Juarsah, Benefits and alternative use of organic fertilizer on dry land through planting legumes, VII National Congress, Hiti, Bandung, 1999.
[5] Y. Sugito, Y. Nuraini, E. Nihayati, Organic farming systems (Brawijaya University Faculty of Agriculture, Malang, 1995).
[6] F. Dube, M. Espinosa, N.B. Stolpe, E. Zagal, N.V. Thevathasan, A.M. Gordon, Productivity and carbon storage in silvopastoral systems with Pinus ponderosa and Trifolium spp., plantations and pasture on an Andisol in Patagonia, Chile. Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Journal Agroforest Syst, 86, 2012, 113–128.
[7] D. Kleijn, F. Kohler, A. Báldi, P. Batáry, E.D. Concepción, Y. Clough, M. Díaz, D. Gabriel, A. Holzschuh, E. Knop, A. Kovács, E.J.P. Marshall, T. Tscharntke, J. Verhulst, On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe, Proc. R. Soc. B 276, 2009, 903–909.
[8] F. Geiger, J. Bengtsson, F. Berendse, W.W. Weisser, M. Emmerson, M.B. Morales, P. Ceryngier, J. Liira, T. Tscharntke, C. Winqvist, S. Eggers, R. Bommarco, T. Pärt, V. Bretagnolle, M. Plantegenest, L.W. Clement, C. Dennis, C. Palmer, J.J. O˜nate, I. Guerrero, V. Hawro, T. Aavik, C. Thies, A. Flohre, S. Hänke, C. Fischer, P.W. Goedhart, P. Inchausti, Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland, Journal Basic Appl. Ecol., 11, 2010, 97–105.
[9] M. Ghosh, G.N. Chattopadhyay, K. Baral, Transformation of phosphorus during vermicomposting, Journal Bioresour Technol 69,1999, 149-154.
[10] K.P. Nagavallemma, S.P. Wani, L. Stephane, V.V. Padmaja, C. Vineela, Babu, M. Rao, K.L. Sahrawat, Vermicomposting: Recycling wastes into valuable organic fertilizer, Global Theme on Agrecosystems Report no.8. Patancheru. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Andhra Pradesh, 2004.
[11] J.F. Herencia, J.C. Ruiz-Porras, S. Melero, P.A. Garcia-Galavis, E. Morillo, C. Maqueda, Comparison between organic and mineral fertilization for soil fertility levels, crop macronutrient concentrations, and yield, Agron. Journal, 99, 2007, 973–983.
[12] Ministry of Environment, Guidelines for soil and water conservation in organic farming. Environment Agency, Ministry of Environment, Jakarta, 2009.