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Vol ||2|| Issue || 03 ||
Key words:CMOS, Dual-Gate, Leakage Power, MOS, SRAM.
 Amitava Das Gupta, "Multiple Gate MOSFETSs: The Road to the future," International Workshop on physics of semiconductor Devices, pp 96-101, Dec2007.
 Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Samuel Sheng, and Robert W. Brodersen,"Low-Power CMOS Digital Design", IEEE journal of Solid State Circuits , Vol 27. No.4, April 1992
 Behnam Amelifard,Farzan Fallah, and Massoud Pedram,"Leakage Minimization Of SRAM cells in a Dual-Vt and Dual-Tox Technology"IEEE Transactions on very large scale Integration systems,Vol.16.No.7,July 2008.
 D.J.Frank, S.E.Laux, and M.V.Fischetti, "Monte Carlo Simulation of a 30nm Dual Gate MOSFET: How short can Si Go?," International Electron Devices Meeting, pp553-556, Dec1992.
 F.Balestra, S.Cristoloveanu, M Benachir, J.Brini, and T.Elewa, "Double date silicon on insulator with volume inversion: A new device with greatly enhanced performance," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol.8, pp, 410-412, Sep.1987.
 B.E.Roberds, E.J Whang, A.Redolph, and B.S Doyle"Investigation of a Novel Self-Aligned Dual Gate MOSFET Structure", Proceedings 1998 IEEE International SOI Conference, Oct.1998.
 Hesham F. A. Hamed, savas Kaya, Janusz A. Starzyk ,"Use of nano-scale double-gate MOSFET in low-power tunable current mode analog circuits," Analog Integrated Circuit Signal Process, Springer Science+Business Media,2008
 H.-S.P.Wong, "Beyond the conventional transistors,"IBM Journal of Research and Development", pp. 133, 2002.
 Hyo-Rim Bae, Choon Sik Cho, Jae W.Lee, and JaeheungKim, "A24GHz Dual-Gate Mixer Using Sub-Harmonic in 0.18um CMOS Technology,"Asia Pacific microwave Conference Singapore, pp. 1739-1742, Dec. 2009.
Keywords –Asynchronous control, biomedical devices, dc–dcpower converters, dynamic voltage scaling, power management,voltage-scalable switched capacitor.
 O. Al-Terkawi Hasib, M. Sawan, and Y. Savaria, "Fully integratedUltra-low-power asynchronously driven step-down dc-dc converter," inProc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Systems, Paris.
 B. Arntzen and D. Maksimovic, "Switched-capacitor DC/DC converterswith resonant gate drive," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.13, no. 5, pp. 892–902, Sep. 1998.
 Y. Choi, N. Chang, and T. Kim, "Dc-dc converter-aware power managementfor battery-operated embedded systems," in Proc. 42nd DesignAutom. Conf., Jun. 2005, pp. 895–900.
 B. Gosselin, V. Simard, and M. Sawan, "An ultra low-power chopperstabilized front-end for multichannel cortical signals recording," inProc. Canadian Conf. Electr. Computer. Engineering, May 2004, vol.4, pp. 2259–2262.
 B. Gosselin and M. Sawan, "An ultra low-power CMOS automatic actionpotential detector," IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehab. Eng., vol. 17,no. 4, pp. 346–353, Aug. 2009.
 J. Kwong, Y. Ramadass, N. Verma, and A. Chandrakasan, "A 65 nmsub- microcontroller with integrated sram and switched capacitordc-dc converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, no. 1, pp.115–126, Jan. 2009.
 G. Patounakis, Y. Li, and K. Shepard, "A fully integrated on-chipDC-DC conversion and power management system," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 443–451, Mar. 2004..
 S. Platt, S. Farritor, K. Garvin, and H. Haider, "The use of piezoelectricCeramics for electric power generation within orthopedic implants,"IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 455–461, Aug2005.
 L. Nielsen, C. Niessen, J. Sparso, and K. van Berkel, "Low-poweroperation using self-timed circuits and adaptive scaling of the supplyvoltage," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst., vol. 2, no. 4, pp.391–397, Dec. 1994.
Keywords –Supersymmetric method, Non-central potentials, Trigonometric Poschl Teller plus Rosen Morse
 Ballentine, 1999, Quantum mechanics, Simon Fraser University
 Gonul.B and Zorba.I, 2000. Phys. Lett. A Vol 269 (2000) 83-88, Supersymmetric Solution of Non-Central Potetials,Department of Engineering Physics, Gaziantep University, Turkey
 Gonul. B and Kocak. M, 2005, [arXiv : quant-ph/0409085v3], Systemic Search of Exactly Solvable Non-Central Potentials, Department of Engineering Physics, Gaziantep University, Turkey
 C.Y Chen and S. H. Dong,Exactly complete solutions of the Coulomb potential plus a new ring-shaped potential, Phys. Lett. A 335 (2005) 374
 H.X. Quan, L. Guang, W.Z. Min, N.L. Bin, and M. Yan, Solving Dirac Equation with New Ring-Shaped Non Spherical Harmonic Oscillator Potential, Com. Theor. Phys. (China) 53 (2010) 242
 Infield. L and Hull.TD, Rev. Mod Phys.23 (1951) 21 E. Schrödinger, Proc.R. Irish Acad. A46(1940) 9
 M. Combescure, F. Gieresand, and M. Kibler. Are n = 1 and n = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics equivalent? Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, 37(43):10385–10396, 2004.
 Salehi. H, 2011, Aplied Mathematics, Determine the Eigen Function of Schrödinger Equation with Non-Central Potential By Using NU Method, Department of Physics, Shahid Chamran University, Iran
 Sadeghi. J and Pourhassan. B, 2008, Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, Exact Solution of The Non - Central Modified Kratzer Potential Plus a Ring - Shaped Like Potential By The Factorization Method, Sciences Faculty Department of Physics, Mazandaran University, Iran
 Mustafa. M and Kais. M, 2009, [arXiv : math-ph/4206v2], A Vann Diagram for Supersymmetric, Exactly Solvable, Shape Invariant, and Infield-Hull Factorizable Potentials, Department of Physics, Purdue University
Keywords –Adhoc Network, Routing protocol, Flooding, Broadcasting, Active Route
 C.M barushimana, A.Shahrabi, "Comparative Study of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols Performance in Mobile Ad-Hoc
Networks," Workshop on Advance Information Networking and Application, Vol. 2, pp. 679-684, May, 2003.
 M.Abolhasan, T.Wysocki, E.Dutkiewicz, "A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Telecommunication and
Infromation Research Institute University of Wollongong, Australia, June, 2003.
 S. Lu, L. Li, K.Y. Lam, L. Jia, "SAODV: A MANET Routing Protocol that can Withstand Black Hole Attack.," International
Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security, 2009.
 S. Kurosawa et al., "Detecting Blackhole Attack on AODV-Based Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks"
 M. Al-Shurman, S-M. Yoo, and S. Park, "Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," ACM Southeast Regional Conf. 2004."
 Akanksha Saini, and Harish Kumar, "Effect of Black Hole Attack on AODV Routing Protocol in MANET", International Journal of
Computer Science and Technology, Vol.1, issue 2, Dec 2010
 Shree Murthy and J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. "An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks". Mobile Networks and
Applications, 1(2):183–197, 1996.
 C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, "The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Protocol", Ad hoc Networking, Addison-Wesley, 2000, pp.
 Elizabeth M. Royer, C-K Toh, "A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks".
Keywords –Active Npc (Anpc), Electrical Drives, Fault Tolerant, High Power, Multilevel Inverter, Reliability.
.S. Ceballos, J. Pou, E. Robles, J. Zaragoza, And J. L.Martin, "Performanceevaluation Of Fault Tolerant Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters," Ieee Trans.Ind.Electron., Vol. 55, No. 3, Pp. 982–995, Mar. 2008
.S. Ceballos, J. Pou, E. Robles, J. Zaragoza, And J. L. Martin, "Three-Legfault-Tolerant Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter," In Proc. Ieee Int. Symp.Ind. Electron., Jun. 2007, Pp. 3180–3185.
.A. Chen, L. Hu, Y. Deng, And X. He, "A Multilevel Inverter With Faulttolerantability," Ieee Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 20, No. 2, Pp. 405–415,Mar. 2005.
.J. C. Lee, T. J. Kim, D. W. Kang, And D. S. Hyun, "A Control Method Forimprovement Of Reliability In Fault Tolerant Npc Inverter System," In Proc.Power Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 2006, Pp. 1–5.
. J. D. Lee, T. J. Kim, J. C. Lee, And D.W. Hyun, "A Novel Fault Detection Ofan Open-Switch Fault In The Npc Inverter System," In Proc. Ind. Electron.Soc. Annu. Conf., Nov. 2007, Pp. 1565–1569.
 S. Li And L. Xu, "Fault-Tolerant Operation Of A 150 Kw 3-Level Neutralpoint Clamped Pwm Inverter In A Flywheel Energy Storage System," Inproc. Ind. Appl. Soc. Annu. Conf., Sept./Oct. 2001, Vol. 1, Pp. 585–588.
 .S. Li And L. Xu, "Strategies Of Fault Tolerant Operation For Three Levelpwminverters," Ieee Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 21, No. 4, Pp. 933–940, Jul.2006.
.P. Lezana, J. Pou, T. A.Meynard, J.Rodriguez, S. Ceballos, And F.Richardeau,"Survey On Fault Operation On Multilevel Inverters," Ieee Trans. Ind.Electron., Vol. 57, No. 7, Pp. 2207–2218, Jul. 2010.
 G. T. Park, T. J. Kim, D. W. Kang, And D. S. Hyun, "Control Method Ofnpc Inverter For Continuous Operation Under One Phase Fault Condition,"Inproc. Ind. Appl. Soc. Annu. Conf., Oct. 2004, Vol. 4, Pp. 2188–2193.
 J. J. Park, T. J. Kim, And D. S. Hyun, "Study Of Neutral Point Potentialvariation For Three-Level Npc Inverter Under Fault Condition," In Proc. Ind.Electron. Soc. Annu. Conf., Nov. 2008, Pp. 983–988.
Keywords –Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Balanced And Unbalanced Faults, Compensation Capability, Power Quality Sag Severity, Voltage Sag.
 T.L. Tan, S. Chen, and S.S. Choi, "An overview of power quality state estimation", the 7th International IEEE Power EngineeringConference, (IPEC05), 2005, pp: 1-276.
 G Putms, J. Wijayakulasooriya, and P. Minns, "Power Quality: Overview and monitoring", IEEE International Conference on / Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS07), 2007, pp: 551-558.
 T Vmnal, K. Janson, and H. Kalda, "Analysis of power consumption and losses in relation to supply voltage quality", IEEE 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications EPE '09,2009, pp: 1-9.  R. Lima, D. Quiroga, C. Reineri, and F. Magnago, "Hardware and software architecture for power quality analysis." Computers & Electrical Engineering, Vol. 34 (6), pp. 520-530,2008..=
 IEEE recommended practice for evaluating electric power system compatibility with electronic process equipment, IEEE Standard 1346- 1998. 1998.
 N.H. Woodley, L. Morgan, and A. Sundaram, "Experience with an inverter-based dynamic voltage restorer", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 14, issue 3, pp. 1181 -1186, Jul. 1999.
 M. H. J. Bollen, Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags and Interruptions. New York: IEEE Press, 1999.
 M. F. Mc.Granaghan, D. R. Mueller, and M. J. Samotyj, "Voltage sags Q in industrial systems," IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 29, pp. 397-403, Man/Apr. 1993.
 J. C. Smith, J. Lamoree, P. Vinett, T. Duffy, and M. Klein, "The impact of i voltage sags on industrial plant loads," in Proc. Int. Conf. Power Quality: End-Use Applications and Perspectives (PQA'9I), 1991, pp. 171-178. 
 W. H. Kersting, "Radial distribution test feeders", PES summer meeting, 2000. Available: http://ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/sacom/ testfeeders.html . M.A. Hannan, and A. Mohamed, "Modeling and analysis of a 24-pulse dynamic voltage restorer in a distribution system" Research and Development, 2002. SCOReD 2002, pp. 192-195, student conference on 16-17 J
This paper revises the study of computational complexity of solving the simultaneous equations. An equation is an expression of the form W1.W2.........Wk=id where each Wi is a variable with operator and id is the identity element. A solution to such an equation is the assignment of variables which realizes the equality. A system of equations is a collection of such equations; a solution is the assignment of values to unknown variables which simultaneously realizes each equation. We show that the problem of determining the solution is NP. The system of simultaneous equations is probably one of the most important topics in modern engineering computations. The paper examines the Methods of solving the Simultaneous Equations. Section 1 presents introduction. Section 2 discusses the Simultaneous Equations solution as NP. Section 3 describes Method of solving Simultaneous equations in detail. Section 4 Concludes.
Key Words: Simultaneous Equations, NP, Gaussian elimination
 Ron Larson, "Elementary Linear Algebra", 5th Edition, The Pennsylvania State University, The Behrend College
 Mikael Goldmann, Alexander Russeli, "The complexity of solving Equations over finite group", 2003
 Gary D. Knott, "Gaussian Elimination and LU-Decomposition", www.civilized.com, Feb 28, 2012
 Joseph F. Grcar, "Mathematicians of Gaussian Elimination", Notices of the AMS, June 2011
Besides devastation, an earthquake also caused trauma and distress to many people who experience it. Due to that fact, the ruined housing area needs reconstruction, which is not only to build, but also to restore the "lives" in it. An interesting study in architecture field had been conducted in Bantul village, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, where all victims of the earthquake, without any background of formal education in engineering, had roles in reconstructing their devastated settlements after the earthquake. They did this only by holding into the mutual spirit to rise and restore their lives as soon as possible. The participation of Ngibikan Bantul village community after the earthquake had been written in history as a part of completing the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the housing after an earthquake.This study will discuss about things related to the success of that participatory reconstruction. Both roles and involvement of the builders, the rebuilding process, physical products of the process, and its impact for community's social life and the general communities. The explanations will refer to the pattern of community participatory in the rebuilding process after the earthquake.
Key Words: earthquake, reconstruction, participatory, community
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