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Vol ||2|| Issue || 03 ||

1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21031
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Analysis Of Write Power Consumption For Single Gate And Dual Gate MOS Based SRAM
Country :: India
Authors :: Ramanpreet Kaur||Sonia Malhotra||Gurinderpal Singh
Pages No. :: 1-06
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0230106
Full PDF ::
In this paper the target is to study the write power of SRAM cell with dual-gate MOS.Earlier designed memories using single gate MOS faced the problem related with stray capacitance and leakage current which increase the write power dissipation with the shrinking MOS feature and the requirement of Low-power devices.CMOS scaling causes in low Vt(Threshold Voltage) and reduce oxide thickness.Reduction in high thickness at high bias voltage forced the electrons to tunnel through the gate.The proposed dual gate MOS cell present that this leakage current during write access decreased.Because the dual gate MOS requires less operating voltage.Hence,8-bit,32-bit & 64-bit SRAM cells are designed & their write power is analyzed with respect to single gate.

Key words:CMOS, Dual-Gate, Leakage Power, MOS, SRAM.
[1] Abhinav Kranti and G.Alastair Armstrong, "High temperature Performance of OTA with non-ideal double gate SOI MOSFETs," IEEE International SOI Conference, pp.1-2, 2009.
[2] Amitava Das Gupta, "Multiple Gate MOSFETSs: The Road to the future," International Workshop on physics of semiconductor Devices, pp 96-101, Dec2007.
[3] Anantha P. Chandrakasan, Samuel Sheng, and Robert W. Brodersen,"Low-Power CMOS Digital Design", IEEE journal of Solid State Circuits , Vol 27. No.4, April 1992
[4] Behnam Amelifard,Farzan Fallah, and Massoud Pedram,"Leakage Minimization Of SRAM cells in a Dual-Vt and Dual-Tox Technology"IEEE Transactions on very large scale Integration systems,Vol.16.No.7,July 2008.
[5] D.J.Frank, S.E.Laux, and M.V.Fischetti, "Monte Carlo Simulation of a 30nm Dual Gate MOSFET: How short can Si Go?," International Electron Devices Meeting, pp553-556, Dec1992.
[6] F.Balestra, S.Cristoloveanu, M Benachir, J.Brini, and T.Elewa, "Double date silicon on insulator with volume inversion: A new device with greatly enhanced performance," IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol.8, pp, 410-412, Sep.1987.
[7] B.E.Roberds, E.J Whang, A.Redolph, and B.S Doyle"Investigation of a Novel Self-Aligned Dual Gate MOSFET Structure", Proceedings 1998 IEEE International SOI Conference, Oct.1998.
[8] Hesham F. A. Hamed, savas Kaya, Janusz A. Starzyk ,"Use of nano-scale double-gate MOSFET in low-power tunable current mode analog circuits," Analog Integrated Circuit Signal Process, Springer Science+Business Media,2008
[9] H.-S.P.Wong, "Beyond the conventional transistors,"IBM Journal of Research and Development", pp. 133, 2002.
[10] Hyo-Rim Bae, Choon Sik Cho, Jae W.Lee, and JaeheungKim, "A24GHz Dual-Gate Mixer Using Sub-Harmonic in 0.18um CMOS Technology,"Asia Pacific microwave Conference Singapore, pp. 1739-1742, Dec. 2009.

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21038
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: High Efficient Asynchronous Buck Converter For Biomedical Devices
Country :: India
Authors :: M.M.Shanmugapriya||B.Sheryl Nivya,
Pages No. :: 07-13
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/02307013
Full PDF ::
In this project, we present a fully integrated asynchronous step-down switched capacitor dc–dc conversion structure suitable for supporting ultra-low-power circuits commonly found in biomedical devices. The proposed converter uses a PI controller as the heart of the control circuitry to generate the drive signals. To minimize the switching losses, the controller scales the switching frequency of the drive signals according to the loading conditions. A total of 350 pF on-chip capacitance was implemented to support a maximum of 230- W load power. Experimental test results confirm the expectedfunctionality and performance of the proposed circuit.

Keywords –Asynchronous control, biomedical devices, dc–dcpower converters, dynamic voltage scaling, power management,voltage-scalable switched capacitor.
[1] K. Agarwal and K. Nowka, "Dynamic power management by combinationof dual static supply voltages," in Proc. 8th Int. Symp. QualityElectron. Design, Mar. 2007, pp. 85–92.
[2] O. Al-Terkawi Hasib, M. Sawan, and Y. Savaria, "Fully integratedUltra-low-power asynchronously driven step-down dc-dc converter," inProc. IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Systems, Paris.
[3] B. Arntzen and D. Maksimovic, "Switched-capacitor DC/DC converterswith resonant gate drive," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.13, no. 5, pp. 892–902, Sep. 1998.
[4] Y. Choi, N. Chang, and T. Kim, "Dc-dc converter-aware power managementfor battery-operated embedded systems," in Proc. 42nd DesignAutom. Conf., Jun. 2005, pp. 895–900.
[5] B. Gosselin, V. Simard, and M. Sawan, "An ultra low-power chopperstabilized front-end for multichannel cortical signals recording," inProc. Canadian Conf. Electr. Computer. Engineering, May 2004, vol.4, pp. 2259–2262.
[6] B. Gosselin and M. Sawan, "An ultra low-power CMOS automatic actionpotential detector," IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehab. Eng., vol. 17,no. 4, pp. 346–353, Aug. 2009.
[7] J. Kwong, Y. Ramadass, N. Verma, and A. Chandrakasan, "A 65 nmsub- microcontroller with integrated sram and switched capacitordc-dc converter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, no. 1, pp.115–126, Jan. 2009.
[8] G. Patounakis, Y. Li, and K. Shepard, "A fully integrated on-chipDC-DC conversion and power management system," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 443–451, Mar. 2004..
[9] S. Platt, S. Farritor, K. Garvin, and H. Haider, "The use of piezoelectricCeramics for electric power generation within orthopedic implants,"IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 455–461, Aug2005.
[10] L. Nielsen, C. Niessen, J. Sparso, and K. van Berkel, "Low-poweroperation using self-timed circuits and adaptive scaling of the supplyvoltage," IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst., vol. 2, no. 4, pp.391–397, Dec. 1994.

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21041
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Analysis of Energy Spectra and Wave Function of Trigonometric Poschl-Teller plus Rosen-Morse Non-Central Potential Using Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics Approach
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Antomi Saregar|| A.Suparmi ||C. Cari|| H.Yuliani
Pages No. :: 14-26
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/023014026
Full PDF ::
The Energy Eigenvalues And Eigenfunction Of Trigonometric Poschl-Teller Plus Rosen Morse Non- Central Potential Are Analysis Using Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. Trigonometric Poschl-Teller Plus Rosen-Morse Is A Non-Central Shaped Invariance Potential. Recently Developed Supersymmetric In Field Theory Has Been Successfully Employed To Make A Complete Mathematical Analysis Of The Reason Behind Exact Solvability Of Some Non-Central Potentials In A Close Form. Then, By Operating The Lowering Operator We Get The Ground State Wave Function, And The Excited State Wave Functions Are Obtained By Operating Raising Operator Repeatedly. The Energy Eigenvalue Is Expressed In The Closed Form Obtained

Keywords –Supersymmetric method, Non-central potentials, Trigonometric Poschl Teller plus Rosen Morse

[1] Ballentine, 1999, Quantum mechanics, Simon Fraser University
[2] Gonul.B and Zorba.I, 2000. Phys. Lett. A Vol 269 (2000) 83-88, Supersymmetric Solution of Non-Central Potetials,Department of Engineering Physics, Gaziantep University, Turkey
[3] Gonul. B and Kocak. M, 2005, [arXiv : quant-ph/0409085v3], Systemic Search of Exactly Solvable Non-Central Potentials, Department of Engineering Physics, Gaziantep University, Turkey
[4] C.Y Chen and S. H. Dong,Exactly complete solutions of the Coulomb potential plus a new ring-shaped potential, Phys. Lett. A 335 (2005) 374
[5] H.X. Quan, L. Guang, W.Z. Min, N.L. Bin, and M. Yan, Solving Dirac Equation with New Ring-Shaped Non Spherical Harmonic Oscillator Potential, Com. Theor. Phys. (China) 53 (2010) 242
[6] Infield. L and Hull.TD, Rev. Mod Phys.23 (1951) 21 E. Schrödinger, Proc.R. Irish Acad. A46(1940) 9
[7] M. Combescure, F. Gieresand, and M. Kibler. Are n = 1 and n = 2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics equivalent? Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, 37(43):10385–10396, 2004.
[8] Salehi. H, 2011, Aplied Mathematics, Determine the Eigen Function of Schrödinger Equation with Non-Central Potential By Using NU Method, Department of Physics, Shahid Chamran University, Iran
[9] Sadeghi. J and Pourhassan. B, 2008, Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics, Exact Solution of The Non - Central Modified Kratzer Potential Plus a Ring - Shaped Like Potential By The Factorization Method, Sciences Faculty Department of Physics, Mazandaran University, Iran
[10] Mustafa. M and Kais. M, 2009, [arXiv : math-ph/4206v2], A Vann Diagram for Supersymmetric, Exactly Solvable, Shape Invariant, and Infield-Hull Factorizable Potentials, Department of Physics, Purdue University

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21045
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol: A Review Study
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr.A.A.Gurjar|| Mr.A.A.Dande
Pages No. :: 27-29
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/023027029
Full PDF ::
AODV Is Source Initiated A Routing Protocol. AODV Protocols Are Different From Traditional Proactive Protocols Since In Proactive The Routing Mechanism Is Based On Periodic Updates This Leads To High Routing Overhead. The Key Goal In Designing This Protocol Is To Reduce Overhead. Routing Messages In AODV Can Be Divided Into Path Discovery And Path Maintenance Messages. Path Discovery Includes The Route Request (RREQ) And The Route Reply (RREP), While The Latter Includes Route Error (RERR) And Hello Message. In AODV No Routing Structure Is Created Prior.

Keywords –Adhoc Network, Routing protocol, Flooding, Broadcasting, Active Route

[1] C.M barushimana, A.Shahrabi, "Comparative Study of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols Performance in Mobile Ad-Hoc
Networks," Workshop on Advance Information Networking and Application, Vol. 2, pp. 679-684, May, 2003.
[2] M.Abolhasan, T.Wysocki, E.Dutkiewicz, "A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Telecommunication and
Infromation Research Institute University of Wollongong, Australia, June, 2003.
[3] S. Lu, L. Li, K.Y. Lam, L. Jia, "SAODV: A MANET Routing Protocol that can Withstand Black Hole Attack.," International
Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security, 2009.
[4] S. Kurosawa et al., "Detecting Blackhole Attack on AODV-Based Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks"
[5] M. Al-Shurman, S-M. Yoo, and S. Park, "Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," ACM Southeast Regional Conf. 2004."
[6] Akanksha Saini, and Harish Kumar, "Effect of Black Hole Attack on AODV Routing Protocol in MANET", International Journal of
Computer Science and Technology, Vol.1, issue 2, Dec 2010
[7] Shree Murthy and J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. "An Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Networks". Mobile Networks and
Applications, 1(2):183–197, 1996.
[8] C. E. Perkins and E. M. Royer, "The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Protocol", Ad hoc Networking, Addison-Wesley, 2000, pp.
[9] Elizabeth M. Royer, C-K Toh, "A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks".

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21032
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Design of Simplified Active NPC (ANPC) Inverters for Fault Tolerant Operation Using WECS
Country :: India
Authors :: S.Vivekanandan|| J.PadmaPriya
Pages No. :: 30-39
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/023030039
Full PDF ::
Simplified Active NPC (ANPC) Inverters Enable A Substantially Increased Output Power And An Improved Performance At Zero Speed For High-Power Electrical Drives. This Paper Analyzes The Operation Of Simplified ANPC Inverters Under Device Failure Conditions, And Proposes The Fault-Tolerant Strategies To Enable Continuous Operating Of The Inverters And Drive Systems Under Single Device Open- And Short-Failure Conditions. Therefore, The Reliability And Robustness Of The Electrical Drives Are Greatly Improved. Moreover, the Proposed Solution Adds No Additional Components To standard ANPC Inverters; Thus, The Cost For Robust Operation Of Drives Is Lower. Simulation Results Are Provided For Verification. Furthermore, A Comprehensive Comparison For The Reliability Function Of ANPC And NPC Inverters Is Presented. The Results Show That ANPC Inverters Have Higher Reliability Than NPC Inverters. Two Inverters Have Similar Reliability For Device Open Failure, While ANPC Inverters Have Higher Reliability Than NPC Inverters For Device Short Failure. Therefore The Input Voltage Is Renewable Energy And Is Rectified To DC Using Rectifier Circuit And Stored In The Battery.

Keywords –Active Npc (Anpc), Electrical Drives, Fault Tolerant, High Power, Multilevel Inverter, Reliability.


[1].S. Ceballos, J. Pou, E. Robles, J. Zaragoza, And J. L.Martin, "Performanceevaluation Of Fault Tolerant Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverters," Ieee Trans.Ind.Electron., Vol. 55, No. 3, Pp. 982–995, Mar. 2008
[2].S. Ceballos, J. Pou, E. Robles, J. Zaragoza, And J. L. Martin, "Three-Legfault-Tolerant Neutral-Point-Clamped Inverter," In Proc. Ieee Int. Symp.Ind. Electron., Jun. 2007, Pp. 3180–3185.
[3].A. Chen, L. Hu, Y. Deng, And X. He, "A Multilevel Inverter With Faulttolerantability," Ieee Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 20, No. 2, Pp. 405–415,Mar. 2005.
[4].J. C. Lee, T. J. Kim, D. W. Kang, And D. S. Hyun, "A Control Method Forimprovement Of Reliability In Fault Tolerant Npc Inverter System," In Proc.Power Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 2006, Pp. 1–5.
[5]. J. D. Lee, T. J. Kim, J. C. Lee, And D.W. Hyun, "A Novel Fault Detection Ofan Open-Switch Fault In The Npc Inverter System," In Proc. Ind. Electron.Soc. Annu. Conf., Nov. 2007, Pp. 1565–1569.
[6] S. Li And L. Xu, "Fault-Tolerant Operation Of A 150 Kw 3-Level Neutralpoint Clamped Pwm Inverter In A Flywheel Energy Storage System," Inproc. Ind. Appl. Soc. Annu. Conf., Sept./Oct. 2001, Vol. 1, Pp. 585–588.
[7] .S. Li And L. Xu, "Strategies Of Fault Tolerant Operation For Three Levelpwminverters," Ieee Trans. Power Electron., Vol. 21, No. 4, Pp. 933–940, Jul.2006.
[8].P. Lezana, J. Pou, T. A.Meynard, J.Rodriguez, S. Ceballos, And F.Richardeau,"Survey On Fault Operation On Multilevel Inverters," Ieee Trans. Ind.Electron., Vol. 57, No. 7, Pp. 2207–2218, Jul. 2010.
[9] G. T. Park, T. J. Kim, D. W. Kang, And D. S. Hyun, "Control Method Ofnpc Inverter For Continuous Operation Under One Phase Fault Condition,"Inproc. Ind. Appl. Soc. Annu. Conf., Oct. 2004, Vol. 4, Pp. 2188–2193.
[10] J. J. Park, T. J. Kim, And D. S. Hyun, "Study Of Neutral Point Potentialvariation For Three-Level Npc Inverter Under Fault Condition," In Proc. Ind.Electron. Soc. Annu. Conf., Nov. 2008, Pp. 983–988.

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21049
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Analysis of Dynamic Voltage Restorer Compensation Capability & Quality Performance against Voltage Sags in Distribution Systems
Country :: India
Authors :: H.Lakshmi
Pages No. :: 40-48
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/023040048
Full PDF ::
The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) Is Used To Regulate The Voltage At The Load Terminals From Various Power Quality Problems Like Sag, Swell, Harmonics, Unbalance Etc. In Supply Voltage. This Paperprovides Analyses Of Working Performance Of The Device, Including Capability And Quality Of Compensation Of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) Working Against Various Voltage Sags By Simulation.Dynamic Voltage Restorers (Dvrs) Are Used To Protect Sensitive Loads From The Effects Of Voltage Sags On The Distribution Feeder. Significant Simulation Results Show That These Several Types Of The Modelled Device Can Work Very Well Against Balanced And/Or Unbalanced Voltages Caused By Faults In A Distribution System. In Addition, Appropriate Ways To Obtain A Good Quality Output Voltage By A DVR During Voltage Sag Is Also Presented.

Keywords –Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Balanced And Unbalanced Faults, Compensation Capability, Power Quality Sag Severity, Voltage Sag.


[1] T.L. Tan, S. Chen, and S.S. Choi, "An overview of power quality state estimation", the 7th International IEEE Power EngineeringConference, (IPEC05), 2005, pp: 1-276.
[2] G Putms, J. Wijayakulasooriya, and P. Minns, "Power Quality: Overview and monitoring", IEEE International Conference on / Industrial and Information Systems (ICIIS07), 2007, pp: 551-558.
[3] T Vmnal, K. Janson, and H. Kalda, "Analysis of power consumption and losses in relation to supply voltage quality", IEEE 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications EPE '09,2009, pp: 1-9. [4] R. Lima, D. Quiroga, C. Reineri, and F. Magnago, "Hardware and software architecture for power quality analysis." Computers & Electrical Engineering, Vol. 34 (6), pp. 520-530,2008..=
[5] IEEE recommended practice for evaluating electric power system compatibility with electronic process equipment, IEEE Standard 1346- 1998. 1998.
[6] N.H. Woodley, L. Morgan, and A. Sundaram, "Experience with an inverter-based dynamic voltage restorer", IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 14, issue 3, pp. 1181 -1186, Jul. 1999.
[7] M. H. J. Bollen, Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags and Interruptions. New York: IEEE Press, 1999.
[8] M. F. Mc.Granaghan, D. R. Mueller, and M. J. Samotyj, "Voltage sags Q in industrial systems," IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. 29, pp. 397-403, Man/Apr. 1993.
[9] J. C. Smith, J. Lamoree, P. Vinett, T. Duffy, and M. Klein, "The impact of i voltage sags on industrial plant loads," in Proc. Int. Conf. Power Quality: End-Use Applications and Perspectives (PQA'9I), 1991, pp. 171-178. [4]
[10] W. H. Kersting, "Radial distribution test feeders", PES summer meeting, 2000. Available: testfeeders.html . M.A. Hannan, and A. Mohamed, "Modeling and analysis of a 24-pulse dynamic voltage restorer in a distribution system" Research and Development, 2002. SCOReD 2002, pp. 192-195, student conference on 16-17 J

7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21061
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Nondeterministic Procedure of Solving Simultaneous Equations
Country :: India
Authors :: N. Shobha Rani
Pages No. :: 49-54
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/023049054
Full PDF ::

This paper revises the study of computational complexity of solving the simultaneous equations. An equation is an expression of the form W1.W2.........Wk=id where each Wi is a variable with operator and id is the identity element. A solution to such an equation is the assignment of variables which realizes the equality. A system of equations is a collection of such equations; a solution is the assignment of values to unknown variables which simultaneously realizes each equation. We show that the problem of determining the solution is NP. The system of simultaneous equations is probably one of the most important topics in modern engineering computations. The paper examines the Methods of solving the Simultaneous Equations. Section 1 presents introduction. Section 2 discusses the Simultaneous Equations solution as NP. Section 3 describes Method of solving Simultaneous equations in detail. Section 4 Concludes.

Key Words: Simultaneous Equations, NP, Gaussian elimination


[1] Ron Larson, "Elementary Linear Algebra", 5th Edition, The Pennsylvania State University, The Behrend College
[2] Mikael Goldmann, Alexander Russeli, "The complexity of solving Equations over finite group", 2003
[3] Gary D. Knott, "Gaussian Elimination and LU-Decomposition",, Feb 28, 2012
[4] Joseph F. Grcar, "Mathematicians of Gaussian Elimination", Notices of the AMS, June 2011

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21070
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Implementation Of Community Participation Concept In Rebuilding Housing Post Earthquake Disaster
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Rumiati Rosaline Tobing
Pages No. :: 55-63
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/023055063
Full PDF ::

Besides devastation, an earthquake also caused trauma and distress to many people who experience it. Due to that fact, the ruined housing area needs reconstruction, which is not only to build, but also to restore the "lives" in it. An interesting study in architecture field had been conducted in Bantul village, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, where all victims of the earthquake, without any background of formal education in engineering, had roles in reconstructing their devastated settlements after the earthquake. They did this only by holding into the mutual spirit to rise and restore their lives as soon as possible. The participation of Ngibikan Bantul village community after the earthquake had been written in history as a part of completing the rehabilitation and reconstruction of the housing after an earthquake.This study will discuss about things related to the success of that participatory reconstruction. Both roles and involvement of the builders, the rebuilding process, physical products of the process, and its impact for community's social life and the general communities. The explanations will refer to the pattern of community participatory in the rebuilding process after the earthquake.

Key Words:   earthquake, reconstruction, participatory, community


[1] Arifin, M.Ali. (1988) Apakah Partisipasi Masyarakat Dalam Pembangunan Permukiman Itu?
(What is Community Participation in Human Settlements Development?), Jurnal Penelitian Pemukiman (Journal of Human Settlements Study), Vol.IV No.1-2 .
[2] Balai Tata Ruang Bangunan dan Kawasan (2003) Perumahan Darurat Pasca Bencana
(Emergency Housings Post Disaster), Departemen Permukiman Dan Prasarana Wilayah.
[3] Direktorat Jendral Cipta Karya (1991) Buku Panduan Apresiasi Penyuluhan Keciptakaryaan
(Guide Book of Appreciation for Creative Training), Departemen Pekerjaan Umum .
[4] Direktorat Perumahan, Pedoman Teknik Perencanaan Pembangunan Perumahan Desa (The Best
Guidance for Village Settlements Planning), Departemen Pekerjaan Umum Dan Tenaga Listrik (Department of Public Works)
[5] Hatch, C. Richard. (1984) The Scope Of Social Architecture(Van Nostrand Reinhold:New York).
[6] Kusbiantoro, B.S. (2006) Masyarakat Sosial Desa (Village Social Community), Direktorat
Jendral Pembangunan Masyarakat Desa.
[7] Laksono, P.M. (2006) Visualitas Gempa Yogya (Visualization of Yogyakarta's Earthquake).
[8] McCamant, Kathryn & Charles Durret. Cohousing.
[9] Puradimadja, Sjarif. (1973) Tata Letak Desa (Village Planning), Direktorat Jendral
Pembangunan Masyarakat Desa.
[10] Rahardjo, Gatot.(2006) Gempa Jogja, Indonesia dan Dunia (Yogya, Indonesian, and World
Earthquake) (PT. Gramedia: Jakarta).