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Vol ||2|| Issue || 11 ||


1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24143
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Effect of Hardness and Microstructure on En 353 Steel by Heat Treatment
Country :: India
Authors :: P. Tamil Arasu || R. Dhanasekaran || P. Senthil Kumar || N. Srinivasan
Pages No. :: 01-05
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/02110105
Full PDF ::
Abstract

En 353 steel is an easily available and cheap material that is acceptable for heavy duty applications. Heat treatment on En 353 steel is improved the ductility, toughness, strength, hardness and relive internal stress in the material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) method is used to analyze the composition and the phase of the alloy material. The experimental results of hardness and microstructure are done to get idea about heat treated En 353 steel. It is found that the hardness of the En 353 steel is improved after the heat treatment and the microstructure is changed from ferrite to martensite.

Key words:En 353 steel, Heat treatment, Hardness, Microstructure.

Reference
[1]. A. Bensely, S. Stephen Jayakumar, D. Mohan Lal, G. Nagarajan , and A. Rajadurai, "Failure investigation of crown wheel and pinion", Engineering Failure Analysis, 13, 2006, 1285–1292.
[2]. A. Bahrami, S.H. MousaviAnijdan, M. A. Golozar, M. Shamanian, and N. Varahram, "Effects of conventional heat treatment on wear resistance of AISI H13 tool steel", Wear, 258, 2005, 846-851.
[3]. R. Dhanasekaran, P. Senthil Kumar, and K. Santhi, "Crack failure of planetary gearbox sun gear", International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology, 3, 2010, 12-14.
[4]. M. Ueda, K. Uchino, and A. Kobayashi, "Effects of carbon on wear property in pearlitic steel", wear, 253, 2002, 107-113.
[5]. Narasak Sunwang, Panyamat Wangyao, Yuttanat Boonyongmaneerat, "The effect of heat treatments on hardness and wear resistance in Ni-W alloy coatings", Surface & Coating Technology, 206, 2011, 1096-1101.
[6]. EnverAtık, UmutYunker, and CevdetMerıc, "The effects of conventional heat treatment and boronizing on abrasive wear and corrosion of SAE 1010, SAE 1040, D2 and 304 steels", Tribology International, 36, 2003, 155-161.
[7]. A. Bensely, A. Prabhakaran, D. Mohan Lal and G. Nagarajan, "Enhancing the wear resistance of case carburized steel (En 353) by cryogenic treatment", Cryogenics, 2006, 45, 747-754.
[8]. H. Khorsand, S.M. Habibi, h.Yoozbashizadea, K. Janghorbon, S.M.S. Reihani, H. Rahmani Seraji, and M.ashtari "The role of heat treatment on wear behavior of powder metallurgy low alloy steels", Material and Design, 23, 2002, 667-670.
2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24011
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Hybrid Learning For Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr.C.Loganathan ||K.V.Girija
Pages No. :: 06-13
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/021106013
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Neuro fuzzy hybrid system is a learning mechanism that utilizes the training and learning neural networks to find parameters of a fuzzy system based on the symptoms created by the mathematical model. Adaptive learning is the important characteristics of neural networks. Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is used for system identification based on the available data. The main aim of this work is to determine appropriate neural network architecture for training the ANFIS structure inorder to adjust the parameters of learning method from a given set of input and output data. The training algorithms used in this work are Back Propagation, gradient descent learning algorithm and Runge-Kutta Learning Algorithm (RKLM). The experiments are carried out by combining the training algorithms with ANFIS and the training error results are measured for each combination. The results showed that ANFIS combined with RKLM method provides better training error results than other two methods.

Keywords –Neuro Fuzzy Hybrid System, Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System, Gradient Descent Learning Algorithm, Runge-Kutta Learning Algorithm
Reference
[1] J.S. R. Jang, C.T. Sun and E. Mizutani, "Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing", PTR Prentice Hall, (1997).
[2] Jamal M. Nazzal, Ibrahim M. Elemary and Salam A. Najim, "Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPs) For Analyzing the Properties of Jordan Oil Shale", World Applied Sciences Journal 5, Issue 5, (2008), pp. 546 - 552.
[3] Er. Parveen Sehgal, Sangeeta Gupta and Dharminder Kumar, "A Study of Prediction Modeling Using Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) With Error Back Propagation", Proceedings of AICTE sponsored National Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Network Security: (February 2011), pp. 17-20.
[4] Er. Parveen Sehgal, Sangeeta Gupta and Dharminder Kumar, "Minimization of Error in Training a Neural Network Using Gradient Descent Method", International Journal of Technical Research, Vol. 1,Issue 1, (2012), pp.10-12.
[5] Walter H. Delashmit and Michael T. Manry, "Recent Developments in Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks", Proceedings of the 7th Annual Memphis Area Engineering and Science Conference, (2005), pp. 1-3.
[6] Y.J. Wang and C.T. Lin, "Runge-Kutta Neural Network for Identification of Dynamical Systems in High Accuracy", IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, Vol. 9., No. 2, (1998), pp. 294-307.
[7] Mehmet Onder Efe and Okyay Kaynak, "A Comparative Study of Neural Network Structures in Identification of Non-linear Systems", Mechatronics Research and Application Center, Bogaziçi University, Turkey, (1999). [8] J.S.R Jang and C.T Sun, "Neuro-fuzzy and soft computing: a computational approach to learning and machine intelligence", Prentice-Hall, USA, (1997).

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24046
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Invention Of The Plane Geometrical Formulae - Part II
Country :: India
Authors :: Mr. Satish M. Kaple
Pages No. :: 14-19
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0211014019
Full PDF ::
Abstract
In this paper, I have invented the formulae for finding the area of an Isosceles triangle. My finding is based on pythagoras theorem.

Reference
[1]. Geometry concepts and Pythagoras theorem.

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24041
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Estimation of Noise Reduction by Different Vegetation Type as a Noise Barrier : A Survey in Highway along Waru – Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Utamiretnopudjowati ||B. Yanuwiyadi || R. Sulistiono ||Suyadi ||Y.Matsumoto ||T.Inoue
Pages No. :: 20-25
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0211020025
Full PDF ::
Abstract

Noise pollution has become a common problem in bigcities. Most of the noisegenerated the sounds of transportation and everything in the air. All of these noises on the highways impact to the increasing intensity of noise pollution. The research objective was to estimate the noise reduction using vegetation as a noise barrier in the highway along Waru - Sidoarjo. The present study was conducted on the highway alongWaru - Sidoarjo with existing vegetation at the side of the highway. A series of SLM(Sound Level Meter) was arranged at various distances from the highway, in the presence of vegetation, while another series was arranged in the absence of vegetation over the vegetation, the other series as control of those was placed without vegetation. Vegetation types used as samples wereSamaneasaman,Pterocarpusindicus,Tectonagrandis and Pithecellobiumdulce.From the measurement, noise reduction could be made created equal for each of the vegetation, so that estimation of noise reduction could be generated for specific distances. Theresult showed thatPithecolelobiumdulce havethe highest noise reductioneffectivity(P < 0.01) of 10.12% at 20 m distance.Noise was reduced when the location of the listener was away from the noise source and the noise reduction equation for this vegetation was y = 2.67 ln (x) + 2.18 with coefficient determination (R2) = 0.92.It was suggested that the settlement should be built more than 20 m away from the highway.

Keywordsu : noise; noise barrier; vegetation diversity; highway; settlement

Reference

[1]. Buchari.2007. KebisinganIndustridan Hearing Conservation Program.USU Repository. Medan.
[2]. Data traffic and toll revenue Toll Gate Porong, Sidoarjo Toll Gate and Toll Gate Main Waru 2009
[3]. Djamal, Z.I. 2005.Tantangan Lingkungan dan Lansekap Hutan Kota. PT.Bumi Aksara. Jakarta
[4]. Egan, M.D. 1976.Concept in Architectural Acoustics.Mc-GrawHill,Inc. United States of America.
[5]. Giancoli, D. C. 2001. Fisika 1. Penerbit Erlangga. Jakarta.
[6]. Grey, G.W.and F.J.Deneke. 1978 . Urban Forestry.John Willey and Sons. New York.
[7]. Mediastika, C. E. 2002. Akustikabangunan :Prinsip-prinsipdanPenerapannya di Indonesia. PenerbitErlangga. Jakarta.
[8]. R. Baldauf, E. Thoma, A. Khlystov, V.Isakov, G. Bowker, T. Long, R. Snow. 2008. Impact of Noise Barrier on Near-Road Air Quality. Atmospheric Environment Journal 42 (2008) 7502-7507.
[9]. Samara T and T. Tsitsoni. 2007. Road Traffic Noise Reduction by Vegetation in The Ring Road of a Big City. Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental. Greece.
[10]. Setiawan, R, T. D. Arief, N.Handayani, P. Sawitri. 2001. StudiAwal :Analisa Tingkat KebisinganLaluLintasPadaJalanTolRuasWaru – Sidoarjo. Jurnal Teknik Sipil Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan Universitas Kristen Petra. Surabaya.
[11]. Soemarno.2008. PemodelanSistemdalamPengelolaanSumberdayaAlamdanLingkungan.PPSUB. Malang.
[12]. Yuliarti, D. 2002. Karakteristik Tanaman yang Efektif Mereduksi kebisingan. Skripsi. IPB. Bogor.


5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24144
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Investigation of Physical Properties in II-VI Ternary Semiconductors of Sulphides, Selenides And Tellurides
Country :: India
Authors :: Alla Srivani || Prof Vedam Rama Murthy||G Veera raghavaiah
Pages No. :: 26-35
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0211026035
Full PDF ::
Abstract
This work explains recent advances in II–VI Ternary Semiconductor Alloys. Current work has significant potential for low-cost, scalable solar cells. The close interplay among the properties of the materials and their utility in solar cells is also briefly discussed. Almost group II–VI materials are direct band gap semiconductors with high optical absorption and emission coefficients. Group II–VI materials are good candidates for use in solar cells. The Electrical and Optical Properties of II-VI Ternary Semiconductor Alloys from Binary Semiconductor Alloys are derived using Additivity rule with Quadratic expressions. The Electrical and Optical Properties studied in this group are confined to Refractive index, Optical Polarizability, Absorption coefficient and Energy gap. A comparison of these data is made with reported data available. The relative merit of Present method based on refractive indices without recourse to the experimental methods is stressed. Merits of study of this group alloys is also outlined.


Keywords : Semiconductors, II-VI Group, Sulphides, Selenides and Telluride Semiconductor alloys
Reference

[1]. Zimmer, J. P.; Kim, S. W.; Ohnishi, S.; Tanaka, E.; Frangioni, J. V.; Bawendi, M. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 2526-2527
[2]. Reddy R.R., Rama gopal k., Narasimhulu k., Siva Sankara Reddy L., "Interrelationship between structural, optical, electronic and elastic properties of materials., Journal of Alloys and Compounds 473 (2009) 28–35
[3]. Mahalingam T., Kathalingam A., Velumani S., Soonil Lee., Hosun Moon., Yong Deak Kim., "Electrosynthesis And Studies on Zn1-xHgxTe Thin Films, Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems 10, 21-25 (2007)
[4]. Bard, A. J.; Faulkner, L. R. in Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Ed. John Wiley & sons: New York, 2001, p 290
[5]. Suparna Sadhu and Amitavapatra "Synthesis and spectroscopic study of high quality alloy CdxZn1-xS nanocrystals., J. Chem. Sci., Vol. 120, No. 6, November 2008, pp. 557–564.
[6]. Becerril M*, Silva-Lopez H, and Zelaya-Angel O., "Band gap energy in Zn-rich Zn1-xCdxTe thin films grown by r.f. sputtering. REVISTA MEXICANA DE F ISICA 50 (6) 588–593 DECEMBER 2004.
[7]. Venu gopal Rayapati , Ping-I Lin, and Yit-Tsong Chen Photoluminescence and Raman Scattering from Catalytically Grown ZnxCd1-xS Alloy., J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 11691-11696
[8]. http://www.cleanroom.byu.edu/EW_ternary.phtml-BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, "Direct Energy Band Gap in Ternary Semiconductors".
[9]. Sathyalatha K.C PhD Thesis"Optical and related properties of few II-VI and III-V Semiconductors" SKU University, Anantapuram (2012)
[10]. 10)Murthy V.R, Jeevan kumar.R and Subbaiah, D.V., "New dispersion relation: Relation to ORD, MORD and Molecular Polarization‟ Proc viii Annual conference on IEEE/EMBS, Texas, XIV, P. 1636-1639 (1986).
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[12]. William M. Haynes, David R. Lide, CRC Hand book of Physics and chemistry, Taylor & Francis Group, 91st Edition, 26-May-2010.


6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 24030
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Influence of injection timing on combustion and heat release parameters using biodiesel of Neem, Rice bran and Pongamia in a direct injection compression ignition engine
Country :: India
Authors :: Hariram.V || Shanil George Chandy
Pages No. :: 36-43
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0211036043
Full PDF ::
Abstract
In the present study, the effect of injection timing on combustion and heat release characteristics were analyzed in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine using Neem, Rice bran and Pongamia biodiesels. The biodiesel of Neem, Rice bran and Pongamia was prepared by transesterification process using 2.5 gms of Sodium hydroxide and 400 ml of methanol between 70oC and 100oC. All the three biodiesel were blended in 5%, 10% and 15% ratios. The results showed that at 6 CAD advancement of injection timing, the maximum rise in combustion pressure was 2% to 4% and the rate of heat release was also improved with higher blends of Pongamia biodiesel. Blends of Neem and Rice bran also showed positive improvement but lower that Pongamia.
Reference
[1] Agarwal AK. Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines. Progr Energy Combust Sci, 33, 2007, 233–71.
[2] Agarwal AK, Das LM. Biodiesel development and characterization for use as a fuel in compression ignition engines. Am Soc Mech Eng J Eng Gas Turb Power, 123, 2000, 440–7.
[3] Anand K, Sharma RP, Mehta PS. Experimental investigations on combustion of Jatropha methyl ester in a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine. P Mech Eng D-J, 222, 2008, 1865-77.
[4] Al-Widyan MI, Al-Shyoukh AO. Experimental evaluation of the transesterification of waste palm oil into biodiesel. Bioresour Technol 85(3), 2002, 253–256.
[5] Azam MM, Waris A, Nahar NM, Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as bio-diesel in India. Biomass Bioenergy, 29, 2005, 293–302.
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[7] Canakci M, Van Gerpen J. Biodiesel production from oils and fats with high free fatty acids. Trans ASAE, 44(6), 2001, 1429–36.
[8] Chunde Y, Cheung CS, Cheng CH, Yinshan W, Chan TL, Lee SC. Effect of diesel/methanol compound combustion on diesel engine combustion and emissions. Energ Convers Manage 49(6) , 2008, 1696-704.
[9] Desantes JM, Arregle J, Ruiz S, Delage A. Characterization of the injection combustion process in a D.I. diesel engine running with rape oil methyl ester. SAE 1999-01-1497; 1999, 984–91.
[10] Donghui QI, Michael Leick, Yu Liu, Chia Fon Flee, Effect of EGR and injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics of split injection strategy DI diesel engine fueled with biodiesel, Fuel, 90, 2011, 1884-1891.
[11] Graboski MS, McCormick RL. Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines. Progr Energy Combust Sci 24, 1998, 125–64.
[12] Gumus M, A comprehensive experimental investigation of combustion and heat release characteristics of a biodiesel (hazelnut kernel methyl ester) fueled direct injection compression ignition engine, Fuel, 89, 2010, 2802-2814.