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Vol ||1|| Issue || 2 ||

1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11044
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: An Overview of Fractal Geometries and Antenna
Country :: India
Authors :: Dethalia Ankitkumar Manjibhai|| Prof. Jayeshkumar C. Prajapati|| Dipakkumar J. Barasara
Pages No. :: 01-04
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0120104
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Now days, there is highly demand of antenna with these characteristics (1) Compact size (2) Low profile and (3) Multiband or broad band. As well as it have to maintain antenna parameters (i.e. Gain, Efficiency, Return loss, Directivity etc.). In development of antenna design, the size reduction of antenna is becoming important consideration. Here we introduce the compact size as well as multiband antenna "The Fractal Antenna" which meet up with all ideal characteristics of an antenna (i.e. Directivity, Gain, Efficiency, Return loss, etc.) In this paper we introduce the types of fractal geometries, how it can be use to make an antenna and fractal geometries' iteration functions which reduce the size of an antenna by next to next iterations.
Reference
[1] Jean-Francois, Zurcher Fred, E.Gardiol, "Broadband Patch Antennas," Artech house, Boston, London
[2] Douglas H. Werner and Suman Ganguly, "An Overview of Fractal Antenna Engineering Research", IEEE Antenna and Propagation Magazine, Vol 45, No.1 February 2003
[3] Peitgen, Jurgens, Saupe, "Chaos and Fractals New Frontiers of Science", Second Edition, Springer, New York, 2004.
[4] Wael Shalan, Kuldip Pahwa, "Multi-Band Microstrip Rectangular Fractal Antenna for Wireless Applications"
[5] ABD Sukur Bin Jaafar, "Sierpinski Gasket patch and monopole fractal antenna"
[6] Sarah Kitchen, "Fractal Geometry".

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11045
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Multiplicity distributions for p - n and p - n interactions at high energies
Country :: Egypt
Authors :: Mahmoud Y. El-Bakry||Moaaz A. Moussa||A. Radi||El-Sayed A. El-Dahshan||D.M. Habashy||Ehab G. Abbas
Pages No. :: 05-11
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/01205011
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Charged particles multiplicity distributions arising from p  n and p  n collisions have been
studied over the range of laboratory momenta from 50 to 400 GeV/c. The parton two fireball model (PTFM)
based on an overlapping function and impact parameter analysis is adopted. The parameters controlling
multiparticle production have been investigated and analyzed in the frame work of PTFM. Figures and
calculations are provided to demonstrate good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the
corresponding experimental data at different momenta.

Keywords –Charged pion production, Hadronic collision, Overlapping function, PTFM.
Reference
[1] J.Ranft; Phys. Lett.; 31B, 529(1970).
[2] R.P.Feynman; Photon-Hadron Interactions (Reading, Mass: Benjamin) (1972).
[3] E.Fermi; Prog. Theor. Phys.; 5:570(1951); Phys. Rev.; 81,683(1950).
[4] Y.Nambo; the confinement of quarks .sci. Am.; 48(1976).
[5] Cai-Xu and Chao W-q Meng T-C; phys. Rev.; D 1986, 33, 1287(1986).
[6] M.Jacob and R. Slansky; Phys. Rev.; D 5; 1847(1972).
[7] R.Hwa; Phys. Rev.; D 1, 1790(1970); Phys. Rev. Lett.; 26, 1143(1971A).
[8] E.Fermi; Prog. Theor. Phys.; 5,568(1950).
[9] P.Carruthers and C. Shih; Int. J. MOD. Phys; A 2, 1547(1987).
[10] Al .Golokhvastov; Sov.J.Nucl.Phys; 27:430(1978); Sov.J.Nucl.Phys; 30,128(1979). Ina Sarcevic,
Acta Physica Polonica, Vol. B19(1988).

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11043
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: The probability density of stress intensity factor in S355 Steel
Country :: Morocco
Authors :: Abdelilah Hachim||Hicham Farid||Mohamed El Ghorba||Khalid El Had||Abdelilah Akef||M,hamed Chergui
Pages No. :: 12-15
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/012012015
Full PDF ::
Abstract
In many industrial fields, such as aircraft industry, automotive or under pressure reservoirs… pieces
and organs ar subjected to different types of solicitations; thermic, mechanic or even cyclical load. This type of
cyclical loads causes a progressive degradation of material's characteristics, leading thereafter to a brutal
rupture; it is the fatigue phenomenon. The work presented in this paper is a contribution to the characterisation
of the fatigue dammage risks, and the evolution of cracking mechanisms under cyclical load of a S355 steel piece
used for under pressure reservoirs, having as crucial aim, the study of the stress intensity factor and giving a
contribution to the determination of the stress intensity alert factor, which usually precedes the sudden rupture
of a component, in order to estimate the life expectancy more precisly, based on a probabilistic method using the
Weibull distribution.

Keywords –Fatigue crack initiation, Weibull distribution, Life expectancy.
Reference
[1] A. Boresi, O. Sidebottom, Advanced mechanics of materials, 4th edition, Wiley, 1985.
[2] A. Hachim .M. El Ghorba .A. Akef. M. Chergui «l'évolution du rapport intensité de contrainte-concentration de contrainte et de
la fissuration sous chargement cyclique pour l'acier A36 et l'aluminium 6351-T6» 9éme Congrès de Mécanique, Marrakech 21-24
Avril 2009.
[3] Hachim Abdelilah, Farid Hicham, El Ghorba Mohamed, Chergui M'hamed, Akef Abdelilah, Hariri Said« Prédiction et
évolution de l'amorçage des fissures en fatigue par la méthode probabiliste de l'Acier A36 soumis à un chargement cyclique à
amplitude constante » VI èmes Journées d'Etudes Techniques 2010, 5-7 mai 2010, Marrakech – Maroc.
[4] J Y. Buffière, S. Savelli, P.H. Jouneau, E. Maire, R. Fougères, «Experimental study of porosity and its relation to fatigue
mechanisms of model Al–Si7–Mg0.3 cast Al alloys, Materials Science and Engineering, A316» p.115-126, 2001.
[5] P.Rabbe, «L'amorçage des fissures de fatigue; La fatigue des matériaux et des structures, maloine» paris 1980, 71-105.
[6] M.El Ghorba, «Evolutions du dommage et de la propagation de la fissure sous chargement cyclique de l'acier A36
et l'aluminium 6351-T6» mémoire de maître et science appliqué (Université de Montréal 1985).
[7] J R. Benjamin, C.A Cornell « probability, statistics and decisions for civil engeneers », McGraw Hill, New York, 1970.
[8] Henri Procaccia, Patrick Morilhat, «Fiabilité des structures des installations industrielles» Eyrolles; 1996.
[9] W.Marshal, «An assesssment of the integrety of PWR Pressure Vessels Summry» Report'',June 1982, UKEA Authoity, UK.
[10] Rofle,T.S.Barsoum,M.J.,stress analysis for members with cracks, in fracture and fatigue control in

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 11040
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Prediction and evolution of the fatigue crack initiation in S355 Steel by the probabilistic method
Country :: Morocco
Authors :: Abdelilah Hachim||Hicham Farid||Mohamed El Ghorba||Khalid El Had||Abdelilah Akef||M,hamed Chergui
Pages No. :: 16-21
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/012016021
Full PDF ::
Abstract
In many industrial fields, such as aircraft industry, automotive or under pressure reservoirs… pieces
and organs ar subjected to different types of solicitations ; thermal, mechanic or even cyclical load. This type of
cyclical loads causes a progressive degradation of material's characteristics, leading thereafter to a brutal
rupture ; it is the fatigue phenomenon. The work presented in this paper is a contribution to the characterization
of the fatigue damage risks, and the evolution of cracking mechanisms under cyclical load of a S355 steel piece
used for under pressure reservoirs, having as crucial aim, the study of the first stage of crack initiation, as well
as the percentage of this stage in the life duration of a steel piece, while being based on a probabilistic method
using the Weibull distribution.

Keywords –Fatigue crack initiation, Weibull distribution, Life expectancy.
Reference
[1] M. El Ghorba, H. Farid, A. Hachim, A. Akef, M. Chergui,T. Boukharouba « caractérisation des risques d'endommagement par
fissuration et évolution des mécanismes de fissuration sous chargement cyclique de l'acier A36 » Congrès Algérien de mécaniqu e, 16-
19 Novembre 2009 Biskra Algérie.
[2] Hachim Abdelilah, Farid Hicham, El Ghorba Mohamed, Chergui M'hamed, Akef Abdelilah, Hariri Said« Prédiction et évolution de
l'amorçage des fissures en fatigue par la méthode probabiliste de l'Acier A36 soumis à un chargement cyclique à amplitude con stante
» VI èmes Journées d'Etudes Techniques 2010, 5-7 mai 2010, Marrakech – Maroc.
[3] A. Hachim .M. El Ghorba .A. Akef. M. Chergui «l'évolution du rapport intensité de contrainte-concentration de contrainte et de la
fissuration sous chargement cyclique pour l'acier A36 et l'aluminium 6351-T6» 9éme Congrès de Mécanique, Marrakech 21-24 Avril
2009.
[4] J Y. Buffière, S. Savelli, P.H. Jouneau, E. Maire, R. Fougères, «Experimental study of porosity and its relation to fatigue mechanisms
of model Al–Si7–Mg0.3 cast Al alloys, Materials Science and Engineering, A316» p.115-126, 2001.
[5] P.Rabbe, «L'amorçage des fissures de fatigue; La fatigue des matériaux et des structures, maloine» paris 1980, 71 -105.
[6] M.El Ghorba, «Evolutions du dommage et de la propagation de la fissure sous chargement cyclique de l'aci er A36 et
l'aluminium 6351-T6» mémoire de maître et science appliqué (Université de Montréal 1985).
[7] J R. Benjamin, C.A Cornell « probability, statistics and decisions for civil engeneers », McGraw Hill, New York, 1970.
[8] Henri Procaccia, Patrick Morilhat, «Fiabilité des structures des installations industrielles» Eyrolles; 1996.
[9] W.Marshal, «An assesssment of the integrety of PWR Pressure Vessels Summry» Report'',June 1982,
UKEA Authoity, UK.

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 12014
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Bio-jet Fuel from Microalgae: Reducing Water and Energy Requirements for Algae Growth
Country :: Durham, NH
Authors :: Marian Elmoraghy||Ihab H. Farag
Pages No. :: 22-30
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/012022030
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Cost-effective production of environmentally safe aviation fuel by partially replacing diesel and
kerosene in jet fuel blends with biodiesel produced from microalgae is highly desirable. Biodiesel is a clean
burning, environmentally-friendly alternative fuel that could be produced from domestic resources like algae. Its
use as a jet fuel blend will reduce sulfur emission, particulate matters and will mitigate greenhouse gas
emission. It will also increase the security of energy supply and support the development of jobs and rural
communities. This project focuses on reducing energy requirements and fresh water usage in order to achieve
the lowest cost of algae bio-jet fuel blend production. Light Emitting Diodes as a light source for algae growth
have a major advantage of saving energy and resulted in producing higher biomass algae. Waste water and
reverse osmosis water were compared. RO water was more effective in algae growing. The effect of fluorescent
light intensity on the algae growth rate was studied. An approximate relation was developed in which the rate
algae growth is proportional to the square root of the light intensity.

Keywords –bio-jet fuel, Chlorella Vulgaris, LED algae growth, photosynthetic efficiency, carbon sequestration.
Reference
[1] Campbell, Colin J. (2004), "Oil & Gas Liquid 2004 Scenario," Uppsala Hydrocarbon Depletion Study Group, May 15, 2004.
[2] Wilson, R. and I.H. Farag (2012), "Parametric Study of Biodiesel Quality and Yield Using a Bench -Top Processor," International
Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology 2012 - Vol. 5, No.1 pp. 92 - 105, DOI: 10.1504/IJOGCT.2012.044180
[3] Razon, Luis (2009), "Alternative crops for biodiesel feedstock," CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science ,
Nutrition and Natural Resources 2009 4, No. 056
[4] Sahoo, P.K., and L.M. Das (2009), "Combustion analysis of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine",
Fuel 88 (6) (2009), pp. 994–999.
[5] Li, X., Xu, H., and Wu, Q., (2007), "Large-scale Biodiesel Production from Microalga Chlorella protothecoides through
heterotrophic Cultivation in Bioreactors," Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Vol. 98, No. 4.
[6] Manesh A. and Enayati N. (2008), "Catalysts in Production of Biodiesel: A Review," CAET, American Science and Technology
[7] Tewfik, S., S. Hawash, N. Atteya, G. El Diwani, and I.H. Farag (2012). "Techno-Economic Appraisal of Biodiesel from Jatropha
Curcas: An Egyptian case study," Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (JAST) B 2 (2012) 287-297.
[8] Chisti, Yusuf (2007). "Biodiesel from Microalgae," Biotechnology Advances 25: 294-306.
[9] Chisti, Yusuf (2008),"Biodiesel from Microalgae beat Bioethanol," Trends in Biotechnology 3, 126-131.
[10] Mousdale, D.M., (2008), "Biofuels: Biotechnology, Chemistry and Sustainable Development," National Biodiesel Board, CRC
Press Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida.

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 12006
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: CT Scan Reconstruction from Back Scattering Images for Maximum Convergence
Country :: Andhrapradesh, INDIA
Authors :: Nageswara Rao.Ch||Kishore Kumar.A||Muni sankar.M||Saroja.B
Pages No. :: 31-34
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/012031034
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging, especially for diagnosis
and therapy. However, higher radiation dose from CT will result in increasing of radiation exposure in the
population. Therefore, the reduction of radiation from CT is an essential issue. Expectation maximization (EM)
is an iterative method used for CT image reconstruction that maximizes the likelihood function under Poisson
noise assumption.
Total variation regularization is a technique used frequently in image restoration to preserve edges,
given the assumption that most images are piecewise constant. Here, we propose a method combining
expectation maximization and total variation regularization, called EM+TV. This method can reconstruct a
better image using fewer views in the computed tomography setting, thus reducing the overall dose of radiation.
The numerical results in two and three dimensions show the efficiency of the proposed EM+TV method by
comparison with those obtained by filtered back projection (FBP) or by EM only.

Keywords –computerized tomography, image reconstruction, energy minimization, total variation, expectation
maximization, Poisson noise, compressive sensing, Radon transform.
Reference
[1]. I.J. Cox, J. Kilian, T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, Secure spreadspectrum,watermarking for multimedia, NECResearch Institute
Technical Report 95-10,1995.
[2]. I.J. Cox, J. Kilian, T. Leighton, T. Shamoon, Secure spread spectrum watermarking for images, audio and video, Proc.IEEE
Internat. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP96), Vol. III, Lausanne, Switzerland, 16-19 September 1996,pp. 243-246.
[3]. M.D.Swanson, B. Zhu, A.H.Tewp, Transparent robustimage watermarking, Proc. IEEE Internat. Conf. on Image Processing
(ICIP96), Vol. III, Lausanne, Switzerland, 16-19 September 1996, pp. 211-214.
[4]. Xiao Jun ,Wang Ying A Robust Digital Watermarking Algorithm Based on Multiple-level Discrete Cosine Transform,Chinese
Journal of Computer Vol. 5(2005)
[5]. Liu, R. and Tan, T. "An SVD-Based Watermarking Scheme for Protecting Rightful Ownership", IEEE Transactions on
Multimedia, Vol. 4, No. 1 (2002), pp.121-128.

7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 12057
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Data Mining System Architecture for Training Plan Selection for the Swimmers
Country :: INDIA
Authors :: Ms. D. P. Vaidya||Dr. Sanjay U. Makh
Pages No. :: 35-41
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/012035041
Full PDF ::
Abstract
In Sports, vast amount and variety of data is generated at different stages. Sports are using this data
to derive valuable information to improve performance, avoid injuries, organizations, researchers, coaches,
players game planning, decision making and even for forecasting purpose. The Sports training/coaching
required to be systematic and scientifically formulated approach to excel in sports. The aim of systematic Sports
training is to produce best performance from a player. Performance of a player in competitive sports is joint
effect of physiological, medical, psychological parameters, motor fitness, training/ coaching etc. A common
training plan used during training may suite to some player in the group and improve their performance
whereas it decreases the performance of some other group of players in the same team. Researches in the sport
and physical education have proved that, intensity and type of training required to different players is different.
Therefore a personalized approach in training/coaching will affect the performance in sports. A computer based
coach assistant system is suggested and designed in this research.

Keywords –System architecture, Data mining, Sports Training, Time Series Analysis, Clustering.
Reference
[1]. B. S. Rushall and F. S. Pyke, (1990), The Principle of Individuality. [online] Available from:
http://coachsci.sdsu.edu/csa/vol34/rushall3.htm (Accessed 12 May 2012)
[2]. Silvio Soares dos Santos, Hartmut Riehle, (1998), Relationship among Anthropometric Characteristics, Stroke Frequency and Stroke
Length in Brazilian Elite Swimmers. [online] 16 International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. Available from:
http://w4.ub.uni-konstanz.de/cpa/article/view/988 (Accessed 8 April 2012)
[3]. Ahmed Nabieh Ibrahim Mohamed, Anthropometric Measurements as a Significant for Choosing Juniors in Both Volleyball and
Handball Sports (Factorial Analysis Study). [online] World Journal of Sport Sciences. Available from:
http://idosi.org/wjss/3(4)10/7.pdf 988 (Accessed 17 April 2012)
[4]. Gabriel, The "4 weeks swimming training plan". [online] Available from: http://effectivewaterfitness.com/wpcontent/
uploads/2009/03/the_4_weeks_swimming_training_plan_v1. pdf (Accessed 17 May 2012)
[5]. D. Hannula, (1995), Coaching Swimming successfully (USA, Human Kinetics, 1995)
[6]. O. K. Solieman, Data Mining in Sports: A Research Overview. [online], Available from:
http://ai.arizona.edu/mis480/syllabus/6_Osama-DM_in_Sports.pdf (Accessed 8 April 2012)
[7]. Y. LI, S. Chiusano and Ing. Vincenzo D'Elia., Modeling Athlete Performance Using Clustering Techniques [online], Available from:
http://www.academypublisher.com/proc/isecs10w/papers/isecs10wp169.pdf (Accessed 17 April 2012)
[8]. Professor H. Arsham, Time-Critical Decision Making for Business Administration. [online], Available from:
http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/stat-data/forecast.htm (Accessed 18 April 2012)
[9]. Lind, Marchal, Mason, Gupta, Kabadi, and Singh, Statistical Techniques in Business & Economics. Time Series and Forecasting,
[online], Available from: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070951640/354829/lind51640_ch16.pdf (Accessed 3 May
2012)
[10]. Dr. S. P. Gupta, Statistical Methods (New Delhi, India, S. Chand & Sons Educational Publishers, 2007).

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 12054
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Comparative Study on Flexural Strength of Plain and Fibre Reinforced HVFA Concrete by Destructive and Non Destructive Techniques
Country :: Gujarat, INDIA
Authors :: Manish Rohit||Prof Indrajit Patel||Prof. C D Modhera
Pages No. :: 42-48
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/012042048
Full PDF ::
Abstract
Cement concrete of all kind is one of the most consumed man made material on the earth and is of
second order after water utilization. As per the recent data it is of the order 16 billion tone annually. Due to
consumption of virgin material like cement the principal binder and precious natural material like stone
aggregate, river sand concrete industry is not sustainable. In addition the durability parameter due to aggressive
weather or exposure condition is also a challenging issue in this regards. Both this issue can be well address by
minimum use of cement and hence less emission of Co2 in ,less consumption of energy in production of cement
and optimum exploration of lime stone. Use of supplementary cementing material in form of industry byproduct
or waste can be one of the best solution for greening of the concrete and making concrete industry a sustainable
one.
This article deals with use of High Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) a waste from coal fired thermal power
plant as supplementary cementing material and 12mm triangular shaped polyester fibre as secondary
reinforcement to the conventional concrete. Article describes experimental investigations on mechanical
properties of fibre reinforced HVFA concrete through destructive and non destructive test methods.

Keywords –Compressive Strength, Fly ash, Fibre, Flexural Strength, Sustainability.
Reference
[1]. A. Bisaillon, R. Michel, V.M. Malhotra,"Performance of high-volume fly ash concrete in large experimental monoliths", ACI
Mater. J. 91 (2) (1994) 178–187.
[2]. Aitkin, P. C., "The Art and Science of High-Performance Concrete, "Advances in Concrete Science and Technology, Proceedings,
M. Collepardi Symposium, Rome, October 1997, editor: P. K. Mehta, pp. 107-124.
[3]. Balaguru, P.N., Shah, S.P., 'Fiber reinforced concrete" cement and composites" pp. 179-248
[4]. Desai J P, Construction of HVFA concrete pavements in India: Four case studies Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 78 (11), November
2004: 67-71.
[5]. Gambhir, M. L. (2004), "Concrete Technology", Tata Mc-Graw Hills.
[6]. Guidebook of Non-destructive Testing of Concrete Structures, iaea,vienna,2002
[7]. Kayali, O; Effect of high volume fly ash on mechanical properties of fiber reinforced concrete, Materials and Structures /
Mat6riaux et Constructions, Vol. 37, June 2004, pp 318-327.
[8]. Langley, W. S.; Carette, G. G.; and Malhotra, V. M., "Structural Concrete Incorporating High Volumes of ASTM Class Fly Ash,"
ACI Materials Journal, V. 86, No. 5, Sept. - Oct. 1989, pp. 507-514.
[9]. Malhotra, V M; High-performance HVFA concrete: A solution to the infrastructural needs of India, Indian Concrete Journal, Vol.
76 (2), February 2002: 103-107.
[10]. Malhotra, V. M. and Carina, N. J., "Handbook on Non Destructive testing of Concrete (second edition)".