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Volume 2 ~ Issue 6



Volume 2 ~ Issue 6
1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22030
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Vibration Analysis for Predictive Maintenance Application to A Single Row Ball Bearing
Country :: Maroc
Authors :: Khalid El Had ||Mustapha Boudlal || Abdelhamid Elamri ||Abdelilah Hachim || Abdelkader Benali ||Mohamed El Ghorba
Pages No. :: 01-05
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0260105
Full PDF ::
In the aim of a preparation for predictive maintenance, the vibration analysis turns out to be a brilliant tool for some decades for the industry. Its use is intended to provide three levels of analysis: monitoring, diagnosis and monitoring of the state of equipment damage. Practically, the recorded vibration signals are the result of a different sources mixture for components of machine, which makes it difficult to interpret the state of damage of a particular component. The propose is to separate the contribution of different vibratory sources generally and directly linked to a fault more or less important of a mechanical component, from many measures taken with an accelerometer. The separation will permit not only the localization of the faults on components, but also the follow up of damage evaluation of each one. The principle is then to improve the diagnosis. The objective of our work aims the study of load impact and the coupling misalignment of driving system dedicated to vibratory accelerations. In addition, we will examine the relationship between acceleration and load for average speeds and high speeds, the other part will deal with the coupling alignment.

Key words:Maintenance, bearing, vibration analysis, accelerometers, coupling.
[1] Bolaers F., Dron J.P., Rasolofondraibe L. " Prédiction et suivi de l‟évolution d‟un écaillage de fatigue de roulement par analyse vibratoire". XVIème Congrès Français de mécanique, Nice , référence 649, (2003).
[2] Augeix D., " Analyse vibratoire des machines tournantes ", Les techniques de l'ingénieur, BM5145 (2001)
[3] Bogard F., Debray K., Guo Y.Q., "Determination of Sensor Position for Predictive Maintenance of Revolving Machines", IJSS Vol. 39, PP 3159-3173, (2002).
[4] Tandon N, Choudury A. " An analytical model for the prediction of the vibration response of rolling element bearings due to localized defect".; Journal of sound and vibration, 205(3) pp275–292. (1997).
[5] P. Estocq. Une approche méthodologique numérique et expérimentale d'aide à la détection et au suivi vibratoire de défauts d'écaillage de roulements à billes. Thèse, Université de Reims, 2004.
[6] F. Bolaers, B. Pottier, et J.-P. Dron. Dispositif de détection des défauts des machines tournantes pour la détection des composants mécaniques des machines tournantes. Brevet d'invention n_04 11036 du 19 Octobre 2004, Vol. 2 876 795, 2004.
[7] N. Tandon et A. Choudhury. _A review of vibration and acoustic measurement methods for the detection of defects in rolling element bearings_. Tribology International, Vol. 32, pp. 469_480, 1999.
[8] S. Boll. _Suppression of acoustic noise in speech using spectral subtraction. IEEE Transactions on Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1979.
[9] J.-P. Dron. Elaboration et adaptation d'outils pour l'étude et le suivi de l'endommagement de composants mécaniques par analyse vibratoire. Thèse, Université de Reims, 1995.
[10] S. Braun. The extraction of periodic wave forms by domain averaging_. Acoustica, Vol. 32, pp. 69_77, 1975.
[11] P. McFadden. _A revised model for the extraction of periodic wave forms by time domain averaging. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 1, pp. 83-95, 1987.
[12] G. Chaturverdi et D. Thomas. _Bearing fault detection using adaptive noise cancelling . Publication of the ASME, Vol. Paper 81-DET-7, New-York, 1981.

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22038
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Zero-Free Regions for Polynomials With Restricted Coefficients
Country :: Kashmir, Srinagar
Authors :: M. H. Gulzar
Pages No. :: 06-10
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/02606010
Full PDF ::
According to a famous result of Enestrom and Kakeya, if
1 0
1 P(z) a z a z ...... a z a n
n      

is a polynomial of degree n such that
1 1 0 0 a a ...... a a n n       ,
then P(z) does not vanish in z 1. In this paper we relax the hypothesis of this result in several ways and
obtain zero-free regions for polynomials with restricted coefficients and thereby present some interesting
generalizations and extensions of the Enestrom-Kakeya Theorem.
Mathematics Subject Classification: 30C10,30C15

Keywords –Zero-free regions, Bounds, Polynomials
[1] Aziz, A. and Mohammad, Q. G., Zero-free regions for polynomials and some generalizations of Enesrtrom-Kakeya Theorem,
Canad. Math. Bull., 27(1984), 265-272.
[2] Aziz, A. and Zargar B.A., Some Extensions of Enesrtrom-Kakeya Theorem, Glasnik Mathematicki, 31(1996) , 239-244.
[3] Dewan, K. K., and Bidkham, M., On the Enesrtrom-Kakeya Theorem I., J. Math. Anal. Appl., 180 (1993) , 29-36.
[4] Kurl Dilcher, A generalization of Enesrtrom-Kakeya Theorem, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 116 (1986) , 473-488.
[5] Joyal, A., Labelle, G..and Rahman, Q. I., On the Location of zeros of polynomials, Canad. Math. Bull., 10 (1967), 53-63.
[6] Marden, M., Geometry of Polynomials, IInd. Edition, Surveys 3, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, (1966) R.I.
[7] Milovanoic, G. V., Mitrinovic , D.S., Rassiass Th. M., Topics in Polynomials, Extremal problems, Inequalities , Zeros, World
Scientific , Singapore, 1994.
[8] Rahman, Q. I., and Schmeisser, G., Analytic Theory of Polynomials, 2002, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
[9] Zargar, B. A., Zero-free regions for polynomials with restricted coefficients, International Journal of Mathematical Sciences and
Engineering Applications, Vol. 6 No. IV(July 2012), 33-42..

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22050
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: A Study Of Convolution Closure Of Idmrl Class Of Life Distribution
Country :: China
Authors :: Fuxiang Liu
Pages No. :: 11-14
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/026011014
Full PDF ::
This paper, based on the relation between the survival function and the mean residual life(MRL)function, obtains the sufficient condition of the convolution closure of IDMRL class of life distribution and some relevant counterexamples, and then significantly presents the discovery of the SMC (scalar multiplication closure) of IDMRL class of life distribution, and consequently, in the final part, the Poisson shock model is transformed into a mixture model, as serves more effectively in the analysis of survival and reliability.

Keywords –MRL; convolution closure; SMC; Poisson shock model; mixture

[1] Anis, M.Z., 2010. Poisson shock model leading to IDMRL class of life distributions. Technical Report No: SQCOR-2010-01. Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, March 2010.
[2] Anis, M.Z., 2012. On some properties of the IDMRL class of life distributions. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference. 142, 3047-3055.
[3] Bebbington M., Lai C.D., Zitikis R., 2007. A flexible Weibull extension. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 92(6), 719-726.
[4] Bekker, L. ,Mi, J., 2003. Shape and crossing properties of mean residual life functions. Statistics and Probability Letters. 64: 225-234.
[5] Belzunce, F., Ortega, E. M., Ruiz, J. M., 2007. On non-monotonic aging properties from Laplace transform with actuarial applications. Insurance Mathematics and Economics. 40,1-14.
[6] Chen Zhenmin, 2000. A new two-parameter lifetime distribution with bathtub shaped or increasing failure rate function. Statistics and Probability Letters. 49: 155-161.
[7] Gupta, R.C., Lvin, S., 2005. Monotonicity of failure rate and mean residual life function of a gamma-type model. Applied Mathematics and Computation. 165, 623-633.
[8] Mitra, M., Basu, S.K., 1996. Shock models leading to non-monotonic ageing classes of life distributions. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference. 55, 131-138.
[9] Mitra, M., Pandey, A., 2011. Poisson shock models leading to new classes of non-monotonic aging life distributions. Microelectronics Reliability. 51, 2412-2415.
[10] Tang, L.C., Lu, Y., Chew, E.P., 1999. Mean residual life of lifetime distributions. IEEE Transaction Reliability. 48(1): 73-78

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22025
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: An Analytical Study:Relevance of Financial Inclusion For Developing Nations
Country :: India
Authors :: Dr. Anupama Sharma || Ms. Sumita Kukreja
Pages No. :: 15-20
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/033015020
Full PDF ::
For developing nations the era is of inclusive growth and the key for inclusive growth is financial inclusion. Financial inclusion or inclusive financing is the delivery of financial services, at affordable costs, to sections of disadvantaged and low income segments of society. There have been many formidable challenges in financial inclusion area such as bringing the gap between the sections of society that are financially excluded within the ambit of the formal financial system, providing financial literacy and strengthening credit delivery mechanisms so as to improvised the financial economic growth.A nation can grow economically and socially if it’s weaker section can turn out to be financial independent. The paper highlights the basic features of financial inclusion, and its need for social and economic development of the society. The study focuses on the role of financial inclusion, in strengthening the India’s position in relation to other countries economy. For analysing such facts data for the study has been gathered through secondary sources including report of RBI, NABARD, books on financial inclusion and other articles written by eminent authors. After analysing the facts and figures it can be concluded that undoubtedly financial inclusion is playing a catalytic role for the economic and social development of society but still there is a long road ahead to achieve the desired outcomes.

Keywords –Financial inclusion, Business correspondents, Financial stability, no frill accounts, KCC

[1] Dr Chakrabarty KC, DG, RBI. Keynote address on “Furthering Financial Inclusion through Financial Literacy and Credit Counselling”.
[2] Asli Demirguc - Kunt and Klapper, L. (2012): „Measuring Financial Inclusion‟, Policy Research Working Paper, 6025, World Bank,April
[3] Reserve Bank of India (2006a), “Financial Inclusion and Millennium Development Goals”, Address by Usha Thorat, Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, January 16, available at http://www.rbi.org.in.
[4] Reserve Bank of India (2006b), “Economic Growth, Financial Deepening and Financial Inclusion”, Speech by Rakesh Mohan, Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, November 20, available at ttp://www.rbi.org.in.
[5] Reaching Out: Access to and use of banking services across countries, Thorsten Beck, Asli Demirguc-Kunt and Maria Soledad Martinez Peria, World Bank Policy Research, WPS 3754, World Bank, 2005 # - As per Trends and Progress of Banking in India, RBI, 2006-07 (Appendix Table III.35) , end March 2007 there were 27,088 ATMs of Scheduled Commercial Banks in India.

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 14094
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Abeokuta Southwestern, Nigeria
Country :: Nigeria
Authors :: Aladejana J. A.||Talabi A. O.
Pages No. :: 21-31
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/026021031
Full PDF ::
Groundwater is required for continuity of life and sustainability of ecosystem. Hence, this study aimed at assessing the groundwater quality in Abeokuta with respect to drinking and irrigation uses. In-situ parameters (pH, EC, Temperature and TDS) were measured using a multiparameter portable meter (model Testr-35). Major cations-trace metals and anions were subsequently determined in the laboratory using ICPMS and titration methods respectively. Bacteriological analysis was carried out using Nutrient agar medium.Electrical conductivity, pH and TDS had average concentrations of 504.9μS/cm, 6.5 and 379mg/L, Ca, Mg, Na and K had average concentrations in mg/L of 30.5, 8.83, 46.65 and 11.78 while HCO3, SO4, Cl and NO3 average concentrations in mg/L were 99.8, 40.3, 61.3, and 13.7 respectively. Trace metals; Al, Si, Fe and Mn average concentrations in mg/L were 0.37, 21.98, 24.3 and 0.07 while those of Li, Cu, Pb, Co, Cd and As in μg/L were 11.69, 3.50, 2.95, 0.98, 0.52 and 0.78 respectively. Total Bacteria Count (TBC) that ranged from 2 to 190cfu/100ml and coliform count from 1 to 120cfu/100ml had high positive correlation with NO3 indicating similar source possibly from waste/faeces dumps. The concentrations of ions in the groundwater fell within acceptable limits of both WHO and NAFDAC standards. Estimated water quality index revealed that 22% of the water samples fell in good water quality category while 72.2% and 5.5% were in the medium and bad water quality categories respectively.This study has revealed the effectiveness of hydrochemical and bacteriological evaluations in groundwater quality assessment. Groundwater in the study area was not potable but had good irrigation quality.
Keywords –Groundwater, Quality, Assessment, Bacteriological and Coliform.

[1] Olabisi, O.E., Awonusi, O. E. and Adebayo, O. J, Assessment of Bacteria pollution of shallow well water in Abeokuta, southwestern Nigeria. Life Science Journal. Vol.5 No.1, 2008, 59-65.
[2] Olobaniyi, S.B., Ogala, J.E and Nfor, N.B, Hydrogeochemical and bacteriological investigation of groundwater in Agbor area, southern Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.43 (1), 2007, p. 79 – 89.
[3] Abimbola, A. F., Tijani M. N and Nurudeen, A. Some aspect of groundwater quality assessment of Abeokuta. Jour. Min. Geo. Vol 32(1), 1999, pp23-32.
[4] Sangodiyin, A. Y, Considerations on contamination of groundwater by waste-disposal systems in Nigeria. Environmental Technology, 14, 1993, 957 – 964.
[5] Sangodoyin A. and Y.Agbawhe O. M, Environmental study on surface and groundwater pollutants from abattoir effluents. Bioresource Technology, 41, 1992, 193 – 200.
[6] Aremu, D. A. Olawuyi, J. F. Meshitsuka, S. Sridhar, M. K. and Oluwande, P. A, Heavy metal analysis of groundwater from Warri, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12, 2002, 261-267.
[7] Alagbe, S. A, Groundwater resources of river Kan Gimi Baisn, north-central, Nigeria. Environmental Geology, 42, 2002, 404 – 413.
[8] Akujieze C. N. Coker, S. J. and Oteze, G. E, Groundwater in Nigeria – a millennium experience – distribution, practice, problems and solutions. Hydrogeology Journal, 1, 2003, 259 -274
[9] Tijani, M.N. Hyrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara State, Nigeria, Journal of Environmental Geology. Springer- Verlag 24, 1994, pp. 194- 202
[10] Oyawoye, M. N. 1972. The basement complex of Nigeria, In African Geology, edited by T. F.J Dessauvage and A. J Whiteman, pp 60 – 102, University of Ibadan.
[11] Kayode, A. A, On the genesis of the small and large-feldspar porphyritic Older Granites in the Igbo Ora Complex, southwestern Nigeria in C.A Kogbe (ed) Geology of Nigeria, 1976, p.75-84.
[12] Ufoegbune, G. C, Lamidi, K. I, Awomeso, J. A, Eruola, A. O, Eruola, A. O, Idowu, O. A, and Adeofun, C. O, Hydro-geological characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in some selected communities of Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Vol. 1(1), 2009, pp. 010-022.

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21021
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Comparison Of The Characteristics Of CPO Oil And Waste Cooking Oil To The Influence Of Stirring Speed, Temperature And Reaction Time In The Transesterification
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Hanric Muharka ||sadar Wahjudi ||nanik Hendrawati ||Profiyanti Hermien|| Zakijah Irfin
Pages No. :: 32-36
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/026032036
Full PDF ::
Transesterification reaction plays an important role in converting vegetable oil or used oil into biodiesel. Reaction process may result in low yield, due to the conversion stage between oil and methanol takes place is not perfect and can lead to low-quality of biodiesel. In the transesterification reaction; mass of catalysts, mass of methanol, FFA value, reaction temperature, reaction time, and stirring speed is a major factor determining the quality of biodiesel produced. This study focused on the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, and stirring speed on waste cooking oil transesterification reaction. This study focused on the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time and stirring speed on waste cooking oil transesterification reaction. Transesterification reaction takes place at a temperature variation 50, 55, 60, and 65° C, with a variation of reaction time 1, 1.5, and 2 hours, and the use of rapid mixing during the reaction process using a variation of 300, 400, 500, and 600 rpm. Results showed the higher temperatures used, the conversion of biodiesel produced will be higher, for a shorter time. Reactions were carried out at 65°C temperature gives lower yield of methyl ester. Using the stirrer speed is too high will cause the saponification reaction which reduce the yield generated. Use stirring speed is too high will cause the saponification reaction which will reduce the yield generated. Variables that produce the higher yield and quality of biodiesel is the use at 60° C temperature, 1.5 hours reaction time, and 500 rpm stirring speed. The results of these three variables biodiesel, has met SNI the standard and ASTM D 6751 for testing density, viscosity, cetane index, and flash point, but oil CPO has better value compared with waste cooking oil.
Keywords –Transesterification, saponification, cooking oil, temperature, rotation, reaction time

[1] Tiwari, Kumar Alok; Kumar, Akhilesh; dan Raheman, Hifjur. Diesel Production from Jatropha Oil (Jatropha curcas) with High Free Fatty Acids : An Optimized Process. Biomass and Bioenergy (31).,2007, 569-575.
[2] Gerpen, Jon., Van. Biodiesel Processing and Production. Fuel Processing Technology 86 , 2005, 1097-1107.
[3] Hossain, A.B.M.S.; Boyce, A. N.; Salleh, A; and Chandran, S. Impacts of Alcohol Type, Ratio, and Stirring Duration on The Biodiesel Production from Waste Canola Oil. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vo. 5 (14) 2010, 1851 – 1859.
[4] Piyanuch Nakpong, Sasiwimol Wootthikanokkhan. Biodiesel production from mixtures of vegetable oil and used cooking oil. As J. Energy Env, 10 (04), 2009, 221-229.
[5] Vicente, G., Martinez, M., Aracil, J..A Comparative Study of Vegetable Oils for Biodiesel Production In Spain. Energy and Fuels, 20, 2006, 394-398.
[6] Berchmans, Hanny Johanes and Hirata, Shizuko. Biodiesel Production from Crude Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil with a High Content of Free Fatty Acids. Bioresource Technology 99 2007, 1716 – 1721
[7] Leung, Dennis, Y.C., Wu, Xuan, and Leung, M.K.H.. A Review on Biodiesel Production Using Catalyzed Transesterification. Applied Energy 87, 2010, 1083 – 1095.
[8] Hambali, Erliza; Siti Mujdalipah; Armansyah Halomoan Tambunan; Roy Hendroko; dan Abdul Waries Pattiwiri. Teknologi Bioenergi. Agro Media. Jakart , 2007.
[9] ASTM International. Annual Book of ASTM Standards : Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels.Volume 05, 2002.
[10] Parawira, Wilson. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas: A Review. Scientific Research and Essays Vol. 5(14), 2010, 1796 – 1808.

7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 23008
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Invention of the Plane Geometrical Formulae - Part I
Country :: India
Authors :: Mr. Satish M. Kaple
Pages No. :: 37-51
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/026037051
Full PDF ::
In this paper, I have invented the formulae of the height of the triangle. My findings are based on pythagoras theorem.


[1] 1 Geometry concepts & pythagoras theorem.

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 22051
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: The Reduction Possibility Of The Emissions With Co2 Burning Fossils Being Replaced By Solar Energy In The Republic Of Kosovo
Country ::  
Authors :: Vehebi Sofiu
Pages No. :: 52-59
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/026052059
Full PDF ::
ariables that produce the higher yield and quality of biodiesel is the use at 60°Considering the opportunities for the use of solar energy in the Republic of Kosovo makes possible the reduction of emissions with organic burning fossils of CO2, since over 92% of electricity consumption in Kosovo is involved by burning fossils. Fulfillment of standards according to European directives, care to the living environmentin case of global warmingare more reasonsto take into consideration the possibilities of putting in use the modern technologies with efficient exploitation system of natural resources by preserving underground wealth with burning fossils.Advanced technology on the use of solar energy has an unused potential of solar radiationwith optimal temperaturesmeasured by the Kosovo Meteorology Entity and German KFOR in Prizren, with sufficient number of days of annual solar radiation. Encouraging renewable energy investmentswhich include efficient technology of LED solar lighting systems, with solar panelsand photovoltaic system with well-controlled systemare the best indicators that the system is managed welland is the indicator of the living environment protection and reduction of the impacts by CO2and greenhouse gases [1].
Keywords –Reduction of CO2 emissions, renewable energy, solar radiation, efficient system controlled by LED.

[1] [1] V.Sofiu;,”Mundesia e perfitimit nga energjia diellore ne Republiken e Kosoves”, Shkup,
[2] V. Sofiu; Z.Dika; I. Krasniqi;,“Implementation of solar LED lightingin Shtimje“, 2011,
[3] Bruno Motik “Zelena energija “,Zagreb,2005,
[4] EurActi Links Dossier ne “Solar Power”,
[5] Renewable Energy House, Brussels, Belgium
[6] Plani i Kosovës për veprim në mjedis 2006-2010,
[7] Bacanin I., Solar Energy-Solar Panels-Renewable Future
[8] Bruno Motik “Zelena energija “,Zagreb,2005,
[9] Srecko Savic:”Proizvodnje toplinske energjije iz drvne biomase”,Zagreb 2005,
[10] Ministria e Mjedisit dhe Planifikimit Hapësinor të R. Kosovës, 2010-2020
[11] Enti Hidrometorologjik i Kosoves, 2011
[12] Eurostat : Energjia, Transporti dhe indikatorët e ambientiti jetësor 2008.
[13] Komisioni Evropian,2011
[14] V,Sofiu; A.Alidemaj;, K.Guri;, S.Latifi;,”Air quality monitoring in Obiliq”,2012