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Volume 2 ~ Issue 2



Volume 2 ~ Issue 2
1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21030
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Microcontrolled Separating Machine
Country :: Brazil
Authors :: Santos, E.F||Rangel, R.||Andrés, W.||Tomazine, M.||Molina, P.J.
Pages No. :: 01-04
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/0220104
Full PDF ::
The central idea of this work is to present the prototype of a machine that separates spheres by weight. This separation is performed by a device that takes the measurement of the weight of two types of spheres of same volume and dimension, in a dynamic and continuous way, and using a microcontroller, separates them into two different containers according to their weight. The spheres are initially mixed in a single container (silo) and the device transfers one sphere at a time, synchronously and in an organized manner. At the same time, the equipment analyzes and verifies the weight of each sphere through a system that monitors the electrical current of a traction motor, where the spheres are then directed into two types of containers according to their respective weight.

Key words: microcontroller, timing system, detection system, separating system
[1] WINDERSON, E.S; SILVEIRA, P.R. Automation and discrete control. 9th edition. São Paulo: Erica, 2010.
[2] TAVERNIER, C. PIC Microcontrollers. Second edition. Madrid: Paraninfo, 2001.
[3] PEREIRA, F. Microcontroller - Programming in C. 3rd Edition. São Paulo: Erica. 2009
[4] SOUZA, D.J. Pioneering the PIC. 3rd Edition. São Paulo: Erica, 2001.
[5] WILERSON, S. Industrial Sensors: Theoretical concepts and practical applications. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Papel Virtual (Virtual Paper Publishing house), 2004.
[6] SIGHIERI, L; NISHIERI, A. Automatic Control of Industrial Processes: Instrumentation. 2nd edition. São Paulo: Editora Edgard Blücher Ltda.1970.

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21017
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: In Silico Attributes Of Cold Resistance Protein 1 (Crp1) From Brassica Oleraceae
Country :: India
Authors :: nishawar Jan||meenu A. Qureshi||sheikh T. Majeed||khurshid I. Andrabi
Pages No. :: 05-12
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/02205012
Full PDF ::
Cold Resistance Protein 1 (CRP1) gene arabidopsis kin family homolog was previously isolated by us from cold tolerant varieties of Brassica oleraceae (AC# GQ461797-800). CRP1 expression was found to relate with cold acclimation and resistance. The mechanistic understanding of potential cold tolerance induced by the protein however remains obscure due to lack of knowledge about its structure and precise biological function. Therefore, bioinformatics analysis and abinitio 3-D modelling of the protein sequence was performed using various computational analysis tools that suggest a helical organization for the protein with four transmembrane α-helices giving rise to a unique 3-D structure. Consensus sequence motifs for myristoylation further indicate that its localization may be membrane oriented.

Keywords –  Cold resistance protein, in silico, modeling, abinitio
[1]. N.Jan, Cloning, sequence analysis and characterizat ion of cold resistance genes from Brassica Species, doctoral diss., University of
Kashmir, J&K, India ,2009.
[2]. C. B.Anfinsen, Principles that govern the folding of protein chains. Science,181, 1973, 223-230
[3]. F.J.Corrales and A.R.Fersht , Kinet ic significance of GroEL14. (GroES7)2 complexes in molecular chaperone act ivity. Folding &
Design, 1, 1996, 265-273.
[4]. M.Levitt and A.Warshel, Computer Simulat ion of Protein Folding. Nature, 253, 1975, 694-698.
[5]. W.F.Van Gunsteren, Molecular dynamics studies of proteins. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 3, 1993,167-174.
[6]. J.Kyte and R.F.Doolitt le, A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. Journal of Molecular Biology,
[7]. D.T.Jones, Protein secondary st ructure predict ion based on posit ion-specific scoring matrices. Journal of Molecular
[8]. C.Cole,J.D Barber and G.J.Barton, The Jpred 3 secondary structure predict ion server Nucleic Acids Research,36, 2008, W197-
[9]. J.A.Cuff and G.J.Barton, Applicat ion of enhanced mult iple sequence alignment profiles to improve protein secondary st ructure
predict ion. Proteins,40, 1999,502-511.

3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21007
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Study of Hospital Wastewater Characteristic in Malang City
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Prayitno||Zaenal Kusuma||Bagyo Yanuwiadi||Rudy W Laksmono
Pages No. :: 13-16
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022013016
Full PDF ::
Hospital wastewater containing infectious, pathogens, toxid, biodegradable and radioactive contaminants that can cause pollution and health problems. The existence of the hospital adjacent to the residential potential to cause environmental problems as a result of waste discharged into the environment. The objective of study was to determine the waste water characteristics and efficiency of hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Malang City. The study was conducted at three hospital in Malang City which determined by class hospital. The samples taken at the WWTP influent and effluent and then measured pollutant concentration using APHA method and compared with a standart of quality on Java Governor No 61 of 1999. The study of result showed that the characteristic of the wastewater effluent at three hospital in Malang City containing contaminants that exceeded the quality standart based on Java Governor No 61 of 1999, for example: 31% of BOD,24% of Ortho phospat, 50% of phenol, 42% of chlorine- free and 17% of lead were higher of standart limit with mean the average efficiency of the WWTP by 58%.

Keywords – infectious, influent, effluent, WWTP, efficiency

[1]. Anonymous, East Java Governor‟s Decree No 61 of 1999: Liquid Waste Quality Standard for Hospital Activities (Surabaya, Environment Agency of East Java, 1999).
[2]. Anonymous, General Guidelines of Hygene Facilities and Public Buildings (Jakarta, Department of Health, 2002).
[3]. Anonymous, Indonesia Health Profile (Jakarta, Department of Health, 2004).
[4]. Anonymous, Malang in Numbers (Malang,Central Agency Statistics Office, 1999).
[5]. APHA, AWWA, WPCF, Standart Methods for The Examination of Water and Wastewater (Washington DC, American Public Health Association Publication, 1998)
[6]. Arifin,M., Effect of Hospital Waste Of Health (Jakarta, Medical Faculty of Indonesia University Publications, 2008)
[7]. Chitnis, V., et al., Hospital Effluent: a Source of Multiple Drug Resistant Bacteria, Curr. Sci, 79, 2000, 989 – 991.
[8]. F.O. Ekhaise and B.P. Omavwoya, Influence of Hospital Wastewater Discharged from University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City on its Receiving Environment, American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 4 (4), 2008, 484-488.
[9]. Forster CF, Wastewater Treatment and Technology (London, Thomas Telford Publishing, 2003)
[10]. Grady Leslie. C.P, Biological Wastewater Treatment (New York, Marcel Dekker.Inc,1999)

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21003
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Χ2 (Chi-Square) Based Shot Boundary Detection and Key Frame Extraction for Video
Country :: India
Authors :: Prajesh V. Kathiriya||Dhaval S. Pipalia|| Gaurav B. Vasani|| Alpesh J. Thesiya||Devendra J. Varanva
Pages No. :: 17-21
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022017021
Full PDF ::
To Extract valid information from video, without any loss of information, much attention is being paid to video processing technology. For this key frame is very useful technique. Extracting a small number of key frames that can abstract the content of video is very important for efficient browsing and retrieval in video databases. Consequently, technologies for video segmentation and key-frame extraction have become crucial for the development of advanced digital video systems. In this paper, Shot Boundary is detected by using very popular method i.e. Histogram method. By using this Shot Boundary the Key frame is extracted from the video.

Keywords –Histogram, Key Frame Extraction, Shot Boundary Detection,

[1] Seung-Hoon Han, Kuk-Jin Yoon, and In So Kweon, 2000. A new technique for shot detection and key frames selection in histogram space. Workshop on Image Processing and Image Understanding, pp 475-479.
[2] ZHAO Guang-sheng, "A Novel Approach for Shot Boundary Detection and Key Frames Extraction", 2008 International Conference on Multimedia and Information Technology, IEEE-2008.
[3] A. Hanjalic, "Shot-boundary detection: Unraveled and resolved?", IEEE Circuits and System for Video Technology., Vol.12, No.2, February, 2002, pp. 90-105.
[4] Z. Cernekova, I. Pitas, and C Nikou, "Information Theory-based shot cut/fade detection and Video Summarization", IEEE Transaction on Circuits and System for Video Technology, Vol.16, No.1, January 2006, pp. 82-91.
[5] N. Babaguchi, Y. Kawai.T. Ogura, and T. Kitahashi, "Personalized abstraction of broadcasted American football video by highlight selection", IEEE Transaction On Multimedia, Vol.6, No.4, August 2004, pp. 575-586.
[6] A. Hanjalic, "Multimodal approach to measuring excitement in video", Proceedings of International Conference on Multimedia and Expo ICME 03[C].Vol.2, July 2003, pp. 289-292.
[7] Naimish Thakar,Upesh Patel, Pradip Panchal and Hitesh Panchal "Shot Boundary Detection and Key Frame Extraction from Uncompressed Video Stream", International Conference of Signals, Systems and Automation, ICSSA-2011, ISBN 978-1-6123-3002-0.
[8] Y. Cheng, X. Yang, and D. Xu, "A method for shot boundary detection with automatic threshold", TENCON‟02. Proceedings. 2002 IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computers, Communication, Control and Power Engineering[C], Vol.1, October 2002: 582-585.
[9] D. Swanberg, C. F. Shu, and R. Jain, ""Knowledge guided parsing and retrieval in video databases,‟‟ in Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases, Proc. SPIE 1908, 173–187 ~1993!.
[10] F. Arman, A. Hsu, and M-Y. Chiu, ""Image processing on encoded video sequences,‟‟ Multimedia Systems 1~5!, 211–219 ~1994!.
[11] T. D. C. Little, G. Ahanger, R. J. Folz, J. F. Gibbon, F. W. Reeve, D. H. Schelleng, and D. Venkatesh, ""A digital on-demand video service supporting content-based queries,‟‟ Proc. ACM Multimedia 93, pp. 427–436, Anaheim, CA ~1993!.
[12] J. Boreczky, ""Using video and audio data for content extraction and shot and scene boundary determination,‟‟ PhD dissertation, University of California Berkeley, to appear ~1996!.

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21002
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: The Gracefulness of the Merging Graph N ** C4
Country :: India
Authors :: A. Solairaju|| N. Abdul Ali
Pages No. :: 22-24
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022022024
Full PDF ::
There are many graceful graph from standers path, circuit, wheel etc .In this paper a new class of graceful graphs related to c4 [circuits with 4 vertices] is obtained .

Keywords –path limit, ‛n' - copies of c4


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[2]. A. Rosa, On certain valuation of the vertices of a graph, Theory of graphs (International
Synposium,Rome,July 1966),Gordon and Breach, N.Y.and Dunod Paris (1967), 349-355.
[3]. A.Solairaju and K.Chitra Edge-odd graceful labeling of some graphs, Electronics Notes in Discrete Mathematics Volume 33,April 2009,Pages 1.
[4]. A. Solairaju and P.Muruganantham, even-edge gracefulness of ladder, The Global Journal of Applied Mathematics & Mathematical Sciences(GJ-AMMS). Vol.1.No.2, (July-December-2008):pp.149-153.
[5]. A. Solairaju and P.Sarangapani, even-edge gracefulness of Pn O nC5, Preprint (Accepted for publication in Serials Publishers, New Delhi).
[6]. A.Solairaju, A.Sasikala, C.Vimala Gracefulness of a spanning tree of the graph of product of Pm and Cn, The Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics of Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 1, No-2 (July-Dec 2008): pp 133-136.
[7]. A. Solairaju, C.Vimala,A.Sasikala Gracefulness of a spanning tree of the graph of Cartesian product of Sm and Sn, The Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics of Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 1, No-2 (July-Dec 2008): pp117-120.
[8]. A. Solairaju, N.Abdul ali , s. Abdul saleem Gracefulness of Tp-tree with five levels obtained by java programming, The International Journel of Scientific and Research Publication (IJSRP),
Volume 2,Issue 12,December 2012 Edition [ISSN 2250 – 3153]
[9]. A. Solairaju, N.Abdul ali, Gracefulness of nc4 Merging with paths, International Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR),Volume 4,Issue 4, 20 December 2012.Paper ID:G22078
[10]. A. Solairaju, N.Abdul ali, A new class of gracefull trees. International journal of science & engineering research (IJSER),Volume 4,1st dec 2013.paper ID : I01653
[11]. A. Solairaju, N.Abdul ali, Gracefull ness of PK , International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology(IJERT),Volume 1,Issue :10th dec 2012,Paper ID :P12552 [ISSN 2278 – 0181]

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21001
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Phase Transition in Titanium Oxide under High Pressure
Country :: India
Authors :: Surendra Kumar Singh||Dr. Raja Chauhan
Pages No. :: 25-27
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022025027
Full PDF ::
Transition metal oxides are very interesting, useful and technically relevant materials due to their nature of existence. We have studied the nature of TiO as transition metal oxide and their phase transition under high pressure. We have explored the effect of high pressure on transition metal oxides with the help of proper potential model. A theoretical study of phase transition under high pressure and elastic behavior of transition metal oxides using three body interaction potential model is the result of deformation of electron shells due to overlapping of ions. Transition metal oxides are very hard in nature that is why phase transition occurs at very high pressure. We have applied three body potential model to study transition in Titanium Oxide(TiO). TiO exhibits phase transition from relatively less densed NaCl structure to more densed CsCl atomic arrangement. Under very high pressure TiO undergoes phase transition from B1(Rocksalt) to B2(CsCl). Structure which is associated with a sudden collapse in volume shows first order phase transition.


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7.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15109
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Selection of Lightpath for BER and PMD Constraints
Country :: Ghaziabad, India
Authors :: Prof. R.L.Sharma||Juhi Narain||Praveen Singh
Pages No. :: 28-33
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022028033
Full PDF ::

In this paper a novel technique is given to detect the impairments occurring during 10Gb/s and 40Gb/s transmission and prepare RWA algorithm in which the occurred impairments are taken into considerations. Since there are several impairments occurring the paper deals with Polarization mode dispersion and BER. An algorithm is prepared for selecting the suitable lightpath at which BER is less than the threshold value and PMD is removed by mathematical implementation. Reduction in the impairment reduces the call blocking probability and the computation cost for transmission. Designing of algorithm for suitable lightpath selection is helpful in data transmission at the rate of 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s.

Key Words:  Linear impairments, PMD, Bit Error Rate (BER), Dispersion Slope, RWA.


[1] Yurong (Grace) Huang, Student Member, IEEE, Biswanath Mukherjee, Member, IEEE,"Connection Provisioning With Transmission Impairment Consideration in Optical WDM Networks With High Speed Channels".
[2] Lynn E. Nelson, "Challenges of 40 Gb/s Transmission".
[3] Maher Ali, Vincent Leboucher and Denis Penninckx , "Intelligent Lightpath Selection Schemes".
[4] Jintao Xiong, Weibo Gong and Chunming Qiao, "An Efficient Method for Blocking Performance Analysis of WDM all-optical Networks".
[5] N.Nielsen, et al., ECOC99, paper PD-26.
[6] L Nelson and H Kogelnik, "Coherent Crosstalk impairments in polarization Multiplexed Transmission due to Polarization Mode Dispersion," submitted To Optics Express.
[7] Le N.T., et al., " New dispersion Compensating module for compensation Of dispersion and dispersion slope of non-Zero dispersion fibers in the C band".
[8] B.Hansen, et al., Photon Technol.Lett
[9] Brandon C. Collings and Loc Boivin, "Nonlinear polarization evolution induced by cross phase modulation and its impact on transmission systems",IEEE Photon.
[10] Santosh Kumar Das, Tushar Rajan Swain, Sarat Kumar Patra," Impact of In-Band Crosstalk & Crosstalk Aware Datapath"

8.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15011
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Effect Of Organic Household Waste Tar Removal By Condensation On The Flue Gas Composition
Country :: Indonesia
Authors :: Subagiyo||Eko Naryono|| Sandra Santosa
Pages No. :: 34 - 41
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022034041
Full PDF ::

Condensation is an alternative methods of tar separation on solid waste combustion systems. This research studied the effectiveness of this method to reduce CO, CO2 and hydrocarbon (HC) in the exhaust of combustion gases of household waste with various moisture content. The results showed that the separation of tar does not affect the concentration of CO, CO2 and low boiling point hydrocarbons. From the results of qualitative analysis at condensate, showed compounds like hexana, cyclopentan, phenol, p-cresol and guaiacol, Na, Ca (trace). The concentration of tar was 4.297% analyzed using gravimetric analysis tar, and the ash was 0.449%.

Key Words:   Gas emissions, Condensation, Combustion, Tar.


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[3]. Neves, D., Thunman H., Matos A, Tarelho L., Barea A.G .,2011. Characterization and prediction of biomass pyrolysis product. Progress in energy and combustion science . 37: 611 - 630.
[4]. Phuphuakrat T, Namioka T., Yoshikawa K., 2011. Absorptive removal of biomass tar using water and oily materials. Bioresource Technology. 102: 543- 549.
[5]. Yan Zhang, Shiro Kajitani, Masami Ashizawa, Uso Oki., 2010. Tar destruction and coke formation during rapid pyrolysis and gasification of biomass in drop-tube furnace. Fuel. 89: 302-309.
[6]. Y.B. Yang, V.N. Sharifi, J. Swithenbank, 2004. Effect of air flow rate and fuel moisture on the burning behaviours of biomass and simulated municipal solid wastes in packed bed. Fuel. 83: 1553-1562

9.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21014
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Human Emotional State Recognition Using Facial Expression Detection
Country :: India
Authors :: Gaurav B. Vasani||Prof. R. S. Senjaliya||Prajesh V. Kathiriya||Alpesh J. Thesiya||Hardik H. Joshi
Pages No. :: 42-44
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022042044
Full PDF ::

A human face does not only identify an individual but also communicates useful information about a person's emotional state. No wonder automatic face expression recognition has become an area of immense interest within the computer science, psychology, medicine and human-computer interaction research communities. Various feature extraction techniques based on statistical to geometrical data have been used for recognition of expressions from static images as well as real time videos. This paper reviews various techniques of facial expression recognition systems using MATLAB.

Key Words:  Face detection, Facial expression recognition, PCA.


[1] P. Brimblecombe " Face Detection using Neural Network", Meng Electronic Engineering School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey.
[2] M. Agrawal, N. Jain, M. Kumar and H. Agrawal "Face Recognition using Eigen Faces and Artificial Neural Network" International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, August 2010.
[3] A. R. Nagesh-Nilchi and M. Roshanzamir "An Efficient Algorithm for Motion Detection Based Facial Expression Recognition using Optical Flow" International Journal of Engineering and Applied Science 2006.
[4] P. Saudagare, D. Chaudhari, "Facial Expression Recognition using Neural Network – An Overview", International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE), ISSN: 2231-2307, Volue-2, Issue-1, March 2012.
[5] M. Vully Facial Expression Detection using PCA, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India.

10.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 21006
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Dielectric and Ac Conductivity Studies of Vanadium Pentaoxide Doped Polyaniline Composites
Country :: India
Authors :: Parinitha.M||A.Venkateshlu
Pages No. :: 45-50
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022045050
Full PDF ::

Polyaniline/ V2O5 composites at different weight percentages were synthesized by in situ polymerization method. The composites have been synthesized with various compositions (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %) of vanadium pentaoxide in PANI. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies on polyaniline/ V2O5 composites, the peak at 1122 cm-1 is considered to be measure of the degree of electron delocalization, 1487 cm-1 is C=C stretching of benzonoid ring, 1558 is C=N quinonoid stretching mode of vibration. The surface morphology of these composites was studied with scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The ac conductivity has been studied in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 5 MHz and it is found that 15 wt% shows high conductivity compare to pure polyaniline and other composites. The results obtained for these composites are of scientific and technological interest.

Key Words:  Polyaniline; Vanadium pentaoxide; Composites; AC conductivity, Tangent loss


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11.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 15050
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies of the Iodination of Sultams
Using A Spectroscopic Technique
Country :: Iraq
Authors :: Hassan A. Mohammed||Kareem Sh. Ahmed||Shireen I. Hamadamin
Pages No. :: 51-63
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022051063
Full PDF ::

Kinetics and thermodynamic studies of iodination of sultams...

Key Words: Iodination (ICl), Kinetic, Sultam, Spectroscopy, Thermodynamic.


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12.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 14091
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Water Quality Assessment of the River Godavari, At Ramkund, Nashik, (Maharashtra), India
Country :: India
Authors :: Manjusha Bhor||Prakash Kadave||Abhijit Bhor||Sheetal Bhor||Manisha Bhosale||Bholay A.D
Pages No. :: 64-68
Paper Index :: : 07.4721/022064068
Full PDF ::

The River Godavari which is a holy river known since ancient times. As per stories of Ramayana it was believed that Prabhu Ramchandra was used to take his bath in river Godavari at Ramkund. The probable reason was that, the river changes its direction from North-South to East –West which causes turbulence in water and helps to increase the dissolved oxygen level in water. Hence the water quality at Ramkund is assumed to be much better. People all across country come to Nashik and take a holy bath in Ramkund and to perform various religious activities. This population is in lakhs during Kumb-mela. Keeping this in view the physico-chemical properties of river Godavari at Ramkunda, Nashik are studied. Water quality is assessed during months of June to October 2012, to ascertain the impact of human activities, particularly due to floating population. Temperature, pH, Chlorides, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) was determined.

Key Words:   Correlation, Physiochemical Study, Pollution, Ramkund, River Godavari.


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