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Volume 1 ~ Issue 5



Volume 1 ~ Issue 5
1.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 12121
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Performance Evaluation of Rice Brawn Oil in Low Grade Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine
Country :: Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors :: M.V.S. Murali Krishna||N. Durga Prasada Rao|| A. Anjeneya Prasad|| P.V. K. Murthy
Pages No. :: 01-12
Paper Index :: :07.4721/01501012
Full PDF ::
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the performance of a medium grade low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with ceramic coated cylinder head with 3-mm air gap with different operating conditions [normal temperature and pre-heated temperature] of crude rice brawn oil (CRBO) with varied injection pressure and injection timing. Performance parameters of brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, volumetric efficiency and sound intensity were determined at various values of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Exhaust emissions of smoke and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were recorded at the various values of BMEP. Combustion characteristics at peak load operation of the engine were measured with TDC (top dead centre) encoder, pressure transducer, console and special pressure-crank angle software package. Conventional engine (CE) showed deteriorated performance, while LHR engine showed compatible performance with CRBO operation at recommended injection timing and pressure and the performance of both version of the engine improved with advanced injection timing and at higher injection pressure when compared with CE with pure diesel operation. The optimum injection timing was 32obTDC for CE while it was 29obTDC with LHR engine with CRBO operation. Peak brake thermal efficiency increased by 7%, smoke levels decreased by 2%, NOx levels increased by 24% and sound intensity decreased by 12% with CRBO operation on LHR engine at its optimum injection timing when compared with diesel operation on CE at manufacturer's recommended injection timing of 27obTDC. (Before top dead centre)

Key words: Crude Rice Brawn Oil, CE, LHR engine, Fuel Performance, Exhaust Emissions, Sound Intensity, Combustion Characteristics.
[1]. Pugazhvadivu, M and Jayachandran, K. (2005). Investigations on the performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using preheated waste frying oil as fuel. Renewable energy, 30(14), 2189-2202.
[2]. Saravanan, S., Nagarajan, G., Lakshmi Narayana Rao,G. and Sampath, S. (2007). Feasibility study of crude rice brawn oil as a diesel substitute in a DI-CI engine without modifications. Energy for Sustainable Development, 11(3), 83-92.
[3]. Acharya, S.K., Swain,R.K. and Mohanti, M.K. (2009). The use of rice bran oil as a fuel for a small horse-power diesel engine. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 33(1), 80-88.
[4]. Venkanna, B.K., Venkataramana Reddy,C., Swati B. and Wadawadagi. (2009). Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of direct injection diesel engine running on rice bran oil / diesel fuel blend. International Journal of Chemical and Biological Engineering 2(3), 131-137.
[5]. Misra, R.D., Murthy, M.S. (2010). Straight vegetable oils usage in a compression ignition engine—A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 3005–3013.
[6]. Murali Krishna, M.V.S. (2004). Performance evaluation of low heat rejection diesel engine with alternate fuels. PhD Thesis, J. N. T. University, Hyderabad
[7]. Shailendra Sinha and Avinash Kumar Agarawal. (2005). Performance evaluation of a biodiesel (rice bran oil methyl ester) fuelled transportation diesel engine. SAE. Paper No. 2005- 01-1730
[8]. Sukumar Puhan and Nagarajan, G. (2008). NO x reduction in a DI diesel engine using biodiesel as a renewable fuel. International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 27(3), 143-154.
[9]. Jayant Singh, Mishra, T.N., Bhattacharya, T.K. and Singh, M.P. (2008). Emission characteristics of methyl ester of rice bran oil as fuel in compression ignition engine. International Journal of Chemical and Biological Engineering, 1(2). 62-66.
[10]. Shailendra Sinha, Avinash Kumar Agarwal . (2009). Rice bran oil methyl ester fuelled medium-duty transportation engine: long-term durability and combustion investigations. International Journal of Vehicle Design 50 (1), 248 - 270.

2.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 12142
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Smile Theory of Everything
Country :: Andhra Pradesh, INDIA
Authors :: Satish Gajawada
Pages No. :: 13-16
Paper Index :: :07.4721/015013016
Full PDF ::
I would like to thank everything in this universe which is trying to make this place a better place to live. This report is all about "Smile Theory of Everything (SToE)". In this theory the same thing is given in different formats.

Keywords –Smile, Science, GOD, Engineering, Wow, Human, EARTH

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3.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13005
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Prediction of Horseshoe Chaos in Duffing-Van Der Pol Oscillator Driven By Different Periodic Forces
Country :: Tamilnadu, India
Authors :: L. Ravisankar||V. Ravichandran||V. Chinnathambi
Pages No. :: 17-25
Paper Index :: :07.4721/015017025
Full PDF ::
An analytical threshold condition for the prediction of onset of horseshoe chaos is obtained in the Duffing–van der Pol oscillator driven by different periodic forces using the Melnikov method. The external periodic forces considered are sine wave, square wave, symmetric saw-tooth wave, rectified sine wave and modulus of sine wave. Melnikov threshold curve is drawn in a parameter space. Analytical predictions are demonstrated through direct numerical simulation. Numerical investigations including computation of stable and unstable manifolds of saddle and measuring the time elapsed between two successive transverse intersections are used to detect onset of horseshoe chaos.

Key words: Duffing- van der Pol oscillator, Horseshoe chaos, Melnikov function, periodic forces, chaos.

[1] R. Chacon, Chaos and geometrical resonance in the damped pendulum subjected to periodic pulses, J . Math. Phys. 38, 1997, 1477-1483
[2] K. Konishi, Generating chaotic behaviours in an oscillator driven by periodic forces, Phys. Lett .A,, 320, 2003, 200-206
[3] Z.M. Ge and W.Y. Leu, Anti-control of chaos of two degrees of freedom loud speaker and synchronization of different order systems , Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 20, (2004), 503-521
[4] A.Y.T. Leung and L. Zengrong, Suppressing chaos for some nonlinear oscillators , Int. J. Bifur. and Chaos 14, 2004, 1455-1465
[5] V.M. Gandhimathi, K. Murali and S. Rajasekar, Stochastic resonance with different periodic forces in overdamped two coupled anharmonic oscillators, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 30, 2006, 1034-1047
[6] V. Ravichandran, V. Chinnathambi and S. Rajasekar, Study of nonescape dynamics in Duffing oscillator with four different periodic orces, Indian Journal of Physics, 86(10), 2012, 907-911
[7] V. Ravichandran, V. Chinnathambi and S. Rajasekar , Effect of rectified and modulated sine forces on chaos in Duffing oscillator, Indian J . Phys., 83(11), (2009) 1593-1603
[8] J. Guckenheimer and P. Holmes, Nonlinear oscillations, Dynamical system and bifurcations of vector fields (Springer-Verlag, 1983,New York)
[9] M. Bartuccelli, P.L. Christiansen, N.F. Pedersen and M.P. Soersen, Prediction of Chaos in Josephson junction by the Melnikov function, Phys. Rev. B, 33, 1986 , 4686-4691
[10] M. Bartuccelli, P.L. Christiansen, N.F .Pedersen and M.Salerno, Horseshoe chaos in the space-independent double sine-Gordon, Wave Motion, 8, 1986, 581-594

4.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13010
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Design and Development of Microcontroller Based Electronic Speed Governor for Genset/Automotive Engine
Country :: Pune, India
Authors :: Sushant R. Burje||Prof.S.A.Kulkarni||N.B.Dhande
Pages No. :: 26-33
Paper Index :: :07.4721/015026033
Full PDF ::
The engine speed controller of a conventional diesel engine is called a Governor. In order to control engine speed, the governor controls the amount of fuel using fuel rack. The fuel rack is connected to throttle actuator lever and driven from microcontroller. The actuator motion is controlled to achieve set-point rpm so required pulse width modulation duty cycle to drive actuator is calculated from digital PID algorithm. PIC 16F877A microcontroller based hardware is developed for the implementation of the controller. The system broadly involves interfacing hardware and the software for PID algorithm. A continuous PID controller is governed by an equation which describes the dynamic time varying behavior of the input or the error signal. This is digitized using numerical approximations and is programmed in the microcontroller. This system is a closed loop control system with feedback signal generated by a digital magnetic pickup, which gives a pulse output which is TTL compatible. The PID algorithm along with the hardware achieves the speed control of the diesel engine. The hardware and software are validated in real time by considering different speed settings.

Keywords: Electronic Speed Governor, PID, Throttle Actuator, PIC16F877A, Pulse width modulation.

[1] Jiang Fangyi, Gao Shilun, Zhang Jie and Huang Wei, "Development of Electronic Governor for Diesel Engine Based on Embedded RTOS", IEEE,2006, pp.218-221.
[2] Sung hoon Koo, Hyeong soon moon, "Development of electronic governor and simulator for the generating diesel engine", ICROS-SICE International Joint Conference Japan, IEEE 2009, pp.2900-2902.
[3] Seung-Hwan Lee, Jung-Sik Yim, "Design of Speed Control Loop of a Variable Speed Diesel engine Generator by Electric Governor", IEEE, 2008, pp.978-983.
[4] Dr. M. Meenakshi, Microprocessor Based Digital PID Controller for Speed Control of D.C.Motor, IEEE First International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, IEEE, 2008, pp.960-965. Book:
[5] Curtis D.Johnson, Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8th ed., PHI, 2006, pp. 439-480.
[6] Robert Bosch, Diesel Engine Management, 4th ed., Robert Bosch Gmbh, 2005, pp. 151-160.
[7] V Ganesan, Internal Combustion Engines, 2nd ed., Tata McGraw Hill, 2004, pp. 302-310.
[8] U.A. Bakshi, Elements of Electrical Engineering, 2nd ed., Technical Publications, 1998, pp. 162-195.

Proceedings Papers:
[9] David J. McGowan, D. John Morrow, Multiple Input Governor Control for a Diesel, Dual fuel technologies generating set, IEEE transactions on energy conversion, vol. 23, NO. 3, IEEE, 2008, pp.851-859.
[10] Qian Xiong, Jinliang Shi, Guorong Chen, Zeng Peng, "Research on Idle Speed Control for EFI Gasoline engine with ETB", 2009,pp. 222-226.
[11] Y.Gu & H.Y.Yu, "Digital Speed Governor System Based on TMS320F28335 Chip for a Gas Engine", 2010 International Conference on Communications and Intelligence Information Security, IEEE 2010, pp.40-43.
[12] Hans-Martin Streib and Hubert Bischof, "Electronic throttle control (ETC): a cost effective system for improved emissions, fuel economy, and drivability", SAE Technical Paper Series. Warren dale, PA, 960338, 1996, pp. 165-172.

5.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 12119
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Role of Foreign Direct Investment in India: An Analytical Study
Country :: Janakpuri, Delhi
Authors :: Dr. Jasbir Singh||Ms. Sumita Chadha||Dr. Anupama Sharma
Pages No. :: 34-42
Paper Index :: :07.4721/015034042
Full PDF ::
International Economic Integration plays a vital role in Economic Development of any country. Foreign Direct Investment is one and only major instrument of attracting International Economic Integration in any economy. It serves as a link between investment and saving. Many developing countries like India, are facing the deficit of savings. This problem can be solved with the help of Foreign Direct Investment. Foreign investment helps in reducing the defect of BOP. The flow of foreign investment is a profit making industry like insurance, real estate and business services and serving as a catalyst for the growth of economy in India. The present study is based on the objectives like (a) to know the requirement of amount of foreign investment by India, for its economic Development and (b) to analyze the trend and role of FDI & FIIs in improving the quality and availability of goods has been beyond doubt. To analyze all these objectives data has been gathered through secondary sources like reports and publication of Govt. and RBI relating to foreign Investment. After analyzing all the facts it may be concluded that maximum global foreign investment's flows are attracted by the developed countries rather than developing and under developing countries. Foreign investment flows are supplementing the scare domestic investments in developing countries particularly in India. Further this paper recommends that we should welcome the inflow of foreign investment because it enable us to achieve our cherished goal like making favorable the balance of payment, rapid economic development, removal of poverty, and internal personal disparity in the development and also it is very much convenient and favorable for Indian economy.

Keywords –Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign indirect investment, Internal Personal Disparity, Portfolio Investment Policy, Balance of Payment

[1]. FICCI‟s FDI Survey2002, 2003 and 2004: The Experience of Foreign When to make India a manufacturing base.
[2]. German Federal Statistics and International Trade Statistics(2005)..
[3]. KPMG Corporate Tax Rates Survey USA (2004).
[4]. Alam MS. (2000) "FDI and economic growth of India and Bangladesh: a comparative study" Indian Journal of Economics vol.80.
[5]. Alam Feroz Mohd. (2005) "Impact of foreign direct investment on Indian Economy since economic liberalization", public opinion –monthly survey, vol.2, no.8.
[6]. Bhandari, L.S Gokara. A. Tandon (2002), "Background paper: Reforms and foreign direct investment in India‟ DRC working paper: Reforms and foreign direct
[7]. Investment in India‟ DRC working papers, No 4 centre for new emerging markets, London Business school, p.p 1-23.
[8]. S.Sinha Swapna et al. (2007) "Comparative analysis of FDI in china and India", Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Volume III
[9]. Gupta K.L and Harvinder Kaur, "New Indian economy and reforms" Deep and Deep publication pvt. Ltd New Delhi.
[10]. Gupta S.P, "Statistical Methods" Sultan Chand and Sons 23, Daryaganj, New-Delhi 2008

6.Full Citation
Manuscript Id :: 13014
Manuscript Type :: Research
Manuscript Title :: Climate Change and Its Impact on Groundwater Resources
Country :: Uttarakhand, India
Authors :: C. P. Kumar
Pages No. :: 43-60
Paper Index :: :07.4721/015043060
Full PDF ::
Climate change poses uncertainties to the supply and management of water resources. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the global mean surface temperature has increased 0.6 ± 0.2 oC since 1861, and predicts an increase of 2 to 4 oC over the next 100 years. Temperature increases also affect the hydrologic cycle by directly increasing evaporation of available surface water and vegetation transpiration. Consequently, these changes can influence precipitation amounts, timings and intensity rates, and indirectly impact the flux and storage of water in surface and subsurface reservoirs (i.e., lakes, soil moisture, groundwater). In addition, there may be other associated impacts, such as sea water intrusion, water quality deterioration, potable water shortage, etc. While climate change affects surface water resources directly through changes in the major long-term climate variables such as air temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration, the relationship between the changing climate variables and groundwater is more complicated and poorly understood. The greater variability in rainfall could mean more frequent and prolonged periods of high or low groundwater levels, and saline intrusion in coastal aquifers due to sea level rise and resource reduction. Groundwater resources are related to climate change through the direct interaction with surface water resources, such as lakes and rivers, and indirectly through the recharge process. The direct effect of climate change on groundwater resources depends upon the change in the volume and distribution of groundwater recharge. Therefore, quantifying the impact of climate change on groundwater resources requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. A number of Global Climate Models (GCM) are available for understanding climate and projecting climate change. There is a need to downscale GCM on a basin scale and couple them with relevant hydrological models considering all components of the hydrological cycle. Output of these coupled models such as quantification of the groundwater recharge will help in taking appropriate adaptation strategies due to the impact of climate change. This article presents the likely impact of climate change on groundwater resources, climate change scenario for groundwater in India, status of research studies carried out at national and international level, and methodology to assess the impact of climate change on groundwater resources.

Keywords –Climate change; Hydrological cycle; Groundwater recharge; seawater intrusion; Numerical modeling; MODFLOW; UnSat Suite; WetSpass.

[1]. Allen, Diana M. (2010), Historical trends and future projections of groundwater levels and recharge in coastal British Columbia, Canada, SWIM21 - 21st Salt Water Intrusion Meeting, 21-26 June 2010, Azores, Portugal, pp. 267-270.
[2]. Allen, D. M., Mackie, D. C. and Wei, M. (2004), Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada, Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 12, pp. 270–290.
[3]. Allen, D. M., Cannon, A. J., Toews, M. W. and Scibek, J. (2010), Variability in simulated recharge using different GCMs, Water Resources Research, Vol. 46.
Climate Change and Its Impact on Groundwater Resources
[4]. Bouraoui, F., Vachaud, G., Li, L. Z. X., Le Treut, H. and Chen, T. (1999), Evaluation of the impact of climate changes on water storage and groundwater recharge at the watershed scale, Climate Dynamics, Vol. 15, pp. 153-161.
[5]. Brouyere, S., Carabin, G. and Dassargues, A. (2004), Climate change impacts on groundwater resources: modelled deficits in a chalky aquifer, Geer basin, Belgium, Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 12, pp. 123-134.
[6]. Carneiro, Júlio F., Boughriba, M., Correia, A., Zarhloule, Y., Rimi, A. and EL Houadi, B. (2008), Climate Change Impact in a Shallow Coastal Mediterranean Aquifer, at Saïdia, Morocco, 20th Salt Water Intrusion Meeting, 23-27 June 2008, Naples, Florida, USA, pp. 30-33.
[7]. CGWB (2002), Master Plan for Artificial Recharge to Groundwater in India, Central Ground Water Board, New Delhi, February 2002, p. 115.
[8]. Chadha, D. K. and Sharma, S. K. (2000), Groundwater management in India issues and options, Workshop on Past Achievements and Future Strategies, Central Groundwater Authority, New Delhi, 14 January 2000.
[9]. Climate Change & its Impact on Indian Water Resources: Assessment, Adaptation & Mitigation, Base Paper by National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee.
[10]. Croley, T. E. and Luukkonen, C. L. (2003), Potential effects of climate change on ground water in Lansing, Michigan, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 39 (1), pp. 149-163.